Title: Development and characterization of pepducins as Gs-biased allosteric agonists.
Authors: Carr 3rd, Richard; Du, Yang; Quoyer, Julie; Panettieri Jr, Reynold A; Janz, Jay M; Bouvier, Michel; Kobilka, Brian K; Benovic, Jeffrey L
Published In J Biol Chem, (2014 Dec 26)
Abstract: The β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) is a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor that mediates many hormonal responses, including cardiovascular and pulmonary function. β-Agonists used to combat hypercontractility in airway smooth muscle stimulate β2AR-dependent cAMP production that ultimately promotes airway relaxation. Chronic stimulation of the β2AR by long acting β-agonists used in the treatment of asthma can promote attenuated responsiveness to agonists and an increased frequency of fatal asthmatic attacks. β2AR desensitization to β-agonists is primarily mediated by G protein-coupled receptor kinases and β-arrestins that attenuate receptor-Gs coupling and promote β2AR internalization and degradation. A biased agonist that can selectively stimulate Gs signaling without promoting receptor interaction with G protein-coupled receptor kinases and β-arrestins should serve as an advantageous asthma therapeutic. To identify such molecules, we screened ∼50 lipidated peptides derived from the intracellular loops of the β2AR, known as pepducins. This screen revealed two classes of Gs-biased pepducins, receptor-independent and receptor-dependent, as well as several β-arrestin-biased pepducins. The receptor-independent Gs-biased pepducins operate by directly stimulating G protein activation. In contrast, receptor-dependent Gs-biased pepducins appear to stabilize a Gs-biased conformation of the β2AR that couples to Gs but does not undergo G protein-coupled receptor kinase-mediated phosphorylation or β-arrestin-mediated internalization. Functional studies in primary human airway smooth muscle cells demonstrate that Gs-biased pepducins are not subject to conventional desensitization and thus may be good candidates for the development of next generation asthma therapeutics. Our study reports the first Gs-biased activator of the β2AR and provides valuable tools for the study of β2AR function.
PubMed ID: 25395624
MeSH Terms: Adrenergic beta-Agonists/pharmacology*; Allosteric Regulation; Amino Acid Sequence; Cyclic AMP/biosynthesis; GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs/metabolism*; HEK293 Cells; Humans; Molecular Sequence Data; Peptide Fragments/chemistry; Peptide Fragments/pharmacology*; Peptide Library; Phosphorylation; Protein Binding; Protein Processing, Post-Translational; Protein Structure, Tertiary; Protein Transport; Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2/chemistry; Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2/metabolism; Second Messenger Systems