Title: Epigenetic mechanisms of nickel carcinogenesis.
Authors: Salnikow, K; Costa, M
Published In J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol, (2000)
Abstract: This article considers the mechanism of nickel carcinogenesis, focusing primarily on the epigenetic changes associated with exposure of cells to carcinogenic nickel compounds. We discuss the delivery of nickel in the cell and contrast the genetic and epigenetic changes that have occurred. Within the epigenetic effects, alteration in the levels of transcription factors, such as ATF-1, p53, HIF-1, HIF-1alpha, and NFkappaB, are considered. The relationship between nickel and calcium metabolism and the role it plays in nickel carcinogenesis is also considered, as are reactive oxygen species and the interactions of nickel with proteins. We discuss these epigenetic discussions in light of the effects that nickel has on inducing DNA methylation in cells. It is of interest that nickel induces both a variety of signaling pathways as well as genes that seem to be important for the survival of cancer cells. It is also interesting that the same genes induced or repressed by nickel are similarly overexpressed or not expressed in nickel-transformed cells. It is suggested that this may represent a selection process crucial to the nickel carcinogenesis process.
PubMed ID: 10983897
MeSH Terms: Acetylation/drug effects; Acetyltransferases/metabolism*; Animals; Calcium/metabolism; Carcinogens/toxicity*; DNA Methylation/drug effects*; Genetic Predisposition to Disease; Histone Acetyltransferases; Histones/metabolism*; Humans; Neoplasms/chemically induced*; Neoplasms/genetics*; Neoplasms/metabolism; Nickel/toxicity*; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins*; Transcription Factors/metabolism