Title: PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway and the Biphasic Effect of Arsenic in Carcinogenesis.
Authors: Chen, Qiao Yi; Costa, Max
Published In Mol Pharmacol, (2018 07)
Abstract: Arsenic is a naturally occurring, ubiquitous metalloid found in the Earth's crust. In its inorganic form, arsenic is highly toxic and carcinogenic and is widely found across the globe and throughout the environment. As an International Agency for Research on Cancer-defined class 1 human carcinogen, arsenic can cause multiple human cancers, including liver, lung, urinary bladder, skin, kidney, and prostate. Mechanisms of arsenic-induced carcinogenesis remain elusive, and this review focuses specifically on the role of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in promoting cancer development. In addition to exerting potent carcinogenic responses, arsenic is also known for its therapeutic effects against acute promyelocytic leukemia. Current literature suggests that arsenic can achieve both therapeutic as well as carcinogenic effects, and this review serves to examine the paradoxical effects of arsenic, specifically through the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Furthermore, a comprehensive review of current literature reveals an imperative need for future studies to establish and pinpoint the exact conditions for which arsenic can, and through what mechanisms it is able to, differentially regulate the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway to maximize the therapeutic and minimize the carcinogenic properties of arsenic.
PubMed ID: 29769245
MeSH Terms: Animals; Arsenic/toxicity*; Carcinogenesis/metabolism*; Humans; Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/chemically induced; Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/metabolism*; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism*; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism*; Signal Transduction/drug effects*; Signal Transduction/physiology; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism*