Title: Potential effect modifiers of the arsenic-bladder cancer risk relationship.
Authors: Koutros, Stella; Baris, Dalsu; Waddell, Richard; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Colt, Joanne S; Schwenn, Molly; Johnson, Alison; Ward, Mary H; Hosain, Gm Monawar; Moore, Lee E; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Rothman, Nathaniel; Karagas, Margaret R; Silverman, Debra T
Published In Int J Cancer, (2018 12 01)
Abstract: Populations exposed to arsenic in drinking water have an increased bladder cancer risk and evidence suggests that several factors may modify arsenic metabolism, influencing disease risk. We evaluated whether the association between cumulative lifetime arsenic exposure from drinking water and bladder cancer risk was modified by factors that may impact arsenic metabolism in a population-based case-control study of 1,213 cases and 1,418 controls. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between cumulative arsenic intake and bladder cancer stratified by age, sex, smoking status, body mass index (BMI), alcohol consumption and folate intake. P-values for interaction were computed using a likelihood ratio test. We observed no statistically significant multiplicative interactions although some variations in associations were notable across risk factors, particularly for smoking and BMI. Among former smokers and current smokers, those with the highest cumulative arsenic intake had elevated risks of bladder cancer (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 0.96-2.0 and OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.91-3.0, respectively; while the OR among never smokers was 1.1, 95% CI: 0.6-1.9, p-interaction = 0.49). Among those classified as normal or overweight based on usual adult BMI, the highest level of cumulative arsenic intake was associated with elevated risks of bladder cancer (OR = 1.3, 95% CI: 0.89-2.0 and OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4, respectively), while risk was not elevated among those who were obese (OR = 0.9, 95% CI: 0.4-1.8) (p-interaction = 0.14). Our study provides some limited evidence of modifying roles of age, sex, smoking, BMI, folate and alcohol on arsenic-related bladder cancer risk that requires confirmation in other, larger studies.
PubMed ID: 29981168
MeSH Terms: Adult; Aged; Arsenic/adverse effects*; Body Mass Index; Case-Control Studies; Drinking Water/adverse effects*; Female; Humans; Logistic Models; Male; Middle Aged; Odds Ratio; Overweight/complications; Overweight/epidemiology*; Risk Factors; Smoking/adverse effects; Smoking/epidemiology*; Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/chemically induced; Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/epidemiology*