Title: Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake by Age, Gender, and Pregnancy Status in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003⁻2014.
Authors: Thompson, Maranda; Hein, Nicholas; Hanson, Corrine; Smith, Lynette M; Anderson-Berry, Ann; Richter, Chesney K; Stessy Bisselou, Karl; Kusi Appiah, Adams; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Nordgren, Tara M
Published In Nutrients, (2019 Jan 15)
Abstract: Despite the importance of n-3 fatty acids for health, intakes remain below recommended levels. The objective of this study was to provide an updated assessment of fish and n-3 fatty acid intake (i.e., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and EPA+DHA) in the United States using the 2003⁻2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (n = 45,347)). Over this survey period, toddlers, children, and adolescents (aged 1⁻19) had significantly lower n-3 fatty acid intake (p < 0.001) compared to adults and seniors, which remained significant after adjusting for caloric intake. Females demonstrated lower n-3 fatty acid intake than males (p < 0.001), with adult and senior women having significantly lower intakes compared to men in the same age categories (p < 0.001) after adjustment for energy intake. Women also consumed less fish than men (5.8 versus 6.1 servings/month, p < 0.001). The estimated intakes of n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women did not differ from non-pregnant women (p = 0.6 for EPA+DHA), although pregnant women reported consuming less high n-3 fatty acid-containing fish than non-pregnant women (1.8 versus 2.6 servings/month, p < 0.001). Our findings indicate that subgroups of the population may be at higher risk of n-3 fatty acid intakes below recommended levels.
PubMed ID: 30650613
MeSH Terms: Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Child; Child, Preschool; Diet*; Docosahexaenoic Acids/administration & dosage*; Eicosapentaenoic Acid/administration & dosage; Eicosapentaenoic Acid/analogs & derivatives*; Female; Humans; Infant; Male; Middle Aged; Nutrition Assessment*; Nutrition Surveys; Nutritional Requirements; Pregnancy*; Seafood; United States; Young Adult