Title: A 3-(4-nitronaphthen-1-yl) amino-benzoate analog as a bifunctional AKR1C3 inhibitor and AR antagonist: Head to head comparison with other advanced AKR1C3 targeted therapeutics.
Authors: Wangtrakuldee, Phumvadee; Adeniji, Adegoke O; Zang, Tianzhu; Duan, Ling; Khatri, Buddha; Twenter, Barry M; Estrada, Michelle A; Higgins, Tyler F; Winkler, Jeffrey D; Penning, Trevor M
Published In J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, (2019 09)
Abstract: Drugs used for the treatment of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) include Abiraterone acetate (Zytiga®) and Enzalutamide (XTANDI®). However, these drugs provide clinical benefit in metastatic disease for only a brief period before drug resistance emerges. One mechanism of drug resistance involves the overexpression of type 5 17-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (aldo-keto reductase 1C3 or AKR1C3), a major enzyme responsible for the formation of intratumoral androgens that activate the androgen receptor (AR). 3-((4-Nitronaphthalen-1-yl)amino)benzoic acid 1 is a "first-in-class" AKR1C3 competitive inhibitor and AR antagonist. Compound 1 was compared in a battery of in vitro studies with structurally related N-naphthyl-aminobenzoates, and AKR1C3 targeted therapeutics e.g. GTx-560 and ASP9521, as well as with R-bicalutamide, enzalutamide and abiraterone acetate. Compound 1 was the only naphthyl derivative that was a selective AKR1C3 inhibitor and AR antagonist in direct competitive binding assays and in AR driven reporter gene assays. GTx-560 displayed weak activity as a direct AR antagonist but had high potency in the AR reporter gene assay consistent with its ability to inhibit the co-activator function of AKR1C3. By contrast ASP9521 did not act as either an AR antagonist or block AR reporter gene activity. Compound 1 was the only compound that showed comparable potency to inhibit AKR1C3 and act as a direct AR antagonist. Compound 1 blocked the formation of testosterone in LNCaP-AKR1C3 cells, and the expression of PSA driven by the AKR1C3 substrate (4-androstene-3,17-dione) and by an AR agonist, 5α-dihydrotestosterone consistent with its bifunctional role. Compound 1 blocked the nuclear translocation of the AR at similar concentrations to enzalutamide and caused disappearance of the AR from cell lysates. R-biaclutamide and enzalutamide inhibited AKR1C3 at concentrations 200x greater than compound 1, suggesting that its bifunctionality can be explained by a shared pharmacophore that can be optimized.
PubMed ID: 30641225
MeSH Terms: Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1 Member C3/antagonists & inhibitors*; Androgen Receptor Antagonists/chemistry; Androgen Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology*; Apoptosis; Benzoates/chemistry; Benzoates/pharmacology*; Cell Proliferation; Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry; Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology*; Humans; Male; Naphthalenes/chemistry; Naphthalenes/pharmacology*; Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/drug therapy*; Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/enzymology; Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/pathology; Receptors, Androgen/chemistry*; Tumor Cells, Cultured