Title: Urinary metals and metal mixtures in midlife women: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).
Authors: Wang, Xin; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Batterman, Stuart; Harlow, Siobán D; Park, Sung Kyun
Published In Int J Hyg Environ Health, (2019 06)
Abstract: Little is known about the extent of exposure to metals and metal mixtures among midlife women.We assessed exposure to multiple metals in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multi-site, multi-racial/ethnic cohort of women at midlife.We measured urinary concentrations of 21 metals (arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, cesium, copper, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, platinum, antimony, tin, thallium, uranium, vanadium, tungsten and zinc) using high-resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry among 1335 white, black, Chinese and Japanese women aged 45-56 years at the third SWAN annual visit (1999-2000). Least squared geometric mean concentrations were compared across race/ethnicity, education, financial hardship, smoking, secondhand smoking, seafood intake and rice intake groups. Overall exposure patterns of multiple metals were derived using k-means clustering method.The percentage of women with detectable concentrations of metals ranged from 100% for arsenic, cesium, molybdenum and zinc, to less than 5% for platinum; 15 metals had detection rates of 70% or more. Asian women, both Chinese and Japanese, had higher urinary concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, mercury, molybdenum, lead and thallium, compared with other race/ethnic groups, independent of sociodemographic, lifestyle, dietary, and geographic characteristics. Seafood and rice intake were important determinants of urinary arsenic, cesium, mercury, molybdenum and lead levels. Two distinct overall exposure patterns- "high" vs. "low" -- were identified. Women in the "high" overall exposure pattern were more likely to be Asians, current smokers, and to report high consumption of seafood and rice. Black women were less likely to have the high exposure pattern.Metal exposure of midlife women differs by racial/ethnic, sociodemographic, lifestyle, dietary, and geographic characteristics. Asian women may be experiencing the highest exposures to multiple metals compared with other racial/ethnic groups in the United States.
PubMed ID: 31103473
MeSH Terms: African Americans; Asian Continental Ancestry Group; Cluster Analysis; Cohort Studies; Diet; Environmental Exposure/analysis*; Ethnic Groups; European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; Humans; Mass Spectrometry; Metals/urine*; Middle Aged; Socioeconomic Factors; United States