Title: Formaldehyde, Epigenetics, and Alzheimer's Disease.
Authors: Wang, Fei; Chen, Danqi; Wu, Peipei; Klein, Catherine; Jin, Chunyuan
Published In Chem Res Toxicol, (2019 05 20)
Abstract: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. The accumulation of β-amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles of hyperphosphorylated tau protein are two hallmarks of AD. The β-amyloid and tau proteins have been at the center of AD research and drug development for decades. However, most of the clinical trials targeting β-amyloid have failed. Whereas the safety and efficacy of most tau-targeting drugs have not yet been completely assessed, the first tau aggregation inhibitor, LMTX, failed in a late-stage trial, leading to further recognition of the complexities of AD and reconsideration of the amyloid hypothesis and perhaps the tau hypothesis as well. Multilevel complex interactions between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors contribute to the occurrence and progression of AD. Formaldehyde (FA) is a widespread environmental organic pollutant. It is also an endogenous metabolite in the human body. Recent studies suggest that elevation of FA in the body by endogenous and/or exogenous exposure may play important roles in AD development. We have demonstrated that FA reduces lysine acetylation of cytosolic histones, thereby compromising chromatin assembly and resulting in the loss of histone content in chromatin, a conserved feature of aging from yeast to humans. Aging is an important factor for AD progression. Therefore, FA-induced inhibition of chromatin assembly and the loss of histones may contribute to AD initiation and/or development. This review will briefly summarize current knowledge on mechanistic insights into AD, focusing on epigenetic alterations and the involvement of FA in AD development. The exploration of chemical exposures as contributing factors to AD may provide new insights into AD mechanisms and could identify potential novel therapeutic targets.
PubMed ID: 30964647
MeSH Terms: Alzheimer Disease/etiology*; Alzheimer Disease/genetics; Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology; Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism; Animals; Chromatin/genetics; Chromatin/metabolism; DNA/genetics; DNA/metabolism; Epigenesis, Genetic/drug effects*; Epigenomics/methods*; Formaldehyde/toxicity*; Histones/genetics; Histones/metabolism; Humans; Inflammation/physiopathology; Oxidative Stress/drug effects; tau Proteins/metabolism