Title: Tributyltin chloride (TBT) induces RXRA down-regulation and lipid accumulation in human liver cells.
Authors: Stossi, Fabio; Dandekar, Radhika D; Johnson, Hannah; Lavere, Philip; Foulds, Charles E; Mancini, Maureen G; Mancini, Michael A
Published In PLoS One, (2019)
Abstract: A subset of environmental chemicals acts as "obesogens" as they increase adipose mass and lipid content in livers of treated rodents. One of the most studied class of obesogens are the tin-containing chemicals that have as a central moiety tributyltin (TBT), which bind and activate two nuclear hormone receptors, Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARG) and Retinoid X Receptor Alpha (RXRA), at nanomolar concentrations. Here, we have tested whether TBT chloride at such concentrations may affect the neutral lipid level in two cell line models of human liver. Indeed, using high content image analysis (HCA), TBT significantly increased neutral lipid content in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Consistent with the observed increased lipid accumulation, RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (RNA FISH) and RT-qPCR experiments revealed that TBT enhanced the steady-state mRNA levels of two key genes for de novo lipogenesis, the transcription factor SREBF1 and its downstream enzymatic target, FASN. Importantly, pre-treatment of cells with 2-deoxy-D-glucose reduced TBT-mediated lipid accumulation, thereby suggesting a role for active glycolysis during the process of lipid accumulation. As other RXRA binding ligands can promote RXRA protein turnover via the 26S proteasome, TBT was tested for such an effect in the two liver cell lines. We found that TBT, in a time- and dose-dependent manner, significantly reduced steady-state RXRA levels in a proteasome-dependent manner. While TBT promotes both RXRA protein turnover and lipid accumulation, we found no correlation between these two events at the single cell level, thereby suggesting an additional mechanism may be involved in TBT promotion of lipid accumulation, such as glycolysis.
PubMed ID: 31710612
MeSH Terms: Cell Line; Deoxyglucose/pharmacology; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Down-Regulation/drug effects*; Hep G2 Cells; Hepatocytes/drug effects*; Hepatocytes/metabolism; Humans; In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence; Lipid Metabolism/drug effects*; Retinoid X Receptor alpha/genetics; Retinoid X Receptor alpha/metabolism*; Trialkyltin Compounds/pharmacology*