Skip Navigation
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it’s official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.


The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Your Environment. Your Health.

Publication Detail

Title: In Vivo Assessment of Alveolar Macrophage Efferocytosis Following Ozone Exposure.

Authors: Hodge, Myles X; Reece, Sky W; Madenspacher, Jennifer H; Gowdy, Kymberly M

Published In J Vis Exp, (2019 10 22)

Abstract: Ozone (O3) is a criteria air pollutant that exacerbates and increases the incidence of chronic pulmonary diseases. O3 exposure is known to induce pulmonary inflammation, but little is known regarding how exposure alters processes important to the resolution of inflammation. Efferocytosis is a resolution process, whereby macrophages phagocytize apoptotic cells. The purpose of this protocol is to measure alveolar macrophage efferocytosis following O3-induced lung injury and inflammation. Several methods have been described for measuring efferocytosis; however, most require ex vivo manipulations. Described in detail here is a protocol to measure in vivo alveolar macrophage efferocytosis 24 h after O3 exposure, which avoids ex vivo manipulation of macrophages and serves as a simple technique that can be used to accurately represent perturbations in this resolution process. The protocol is a technically non-intensive and relatively inexpensive method that involves whole-body O3 inhalation followed by oropharyngeal aspiration of apoptotic cells (i.e., Jurkat T cells) while under general anesthesia. Alveolar macrophage efferocytosis is then measured by light microscopy evaluation of macrophages collected from bronchoalveolar (BAL) lavage. Efferocytosis is finally measured by calculating an efferocytic index. Collectively, the outlined methods quantify efferocytic activity in the lung in vivo while also serving to analyze the negative health effects of O3 or other inhaled insults.

PubMed ID: 31710036 Exiting the NIEHS site

MeSH Terms: Animals; Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid; Humans; In Vitro Techniques; Macrophages, Alveolar/metabolism*; Male; Mice; Ozone/metabolism*

to Top