Skip Navigation
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it’s official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.


The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Your Environment. Your Health.

Publication Detail

Title: Residential proximity to greenness mitigates the hemodynamic effects of ambient air pollution.

Authors: Riggs, Daniel W; Yeager, Ray; Conklin, Daniel J; DeJarnett, Natasha; Keith, Rachel J; DeFilippis, Andrew P; Rai, Shesh N; Bhatnagar, Aruni

Published In Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, (2021 03 01)

Abstract: Residential proximity to greenness is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. However, it is unclear whether the beneficial effects of greenness are linked to a reduction in the effects of ambient air pollutants. We measured arterial stiffness in 73 participants with moderate to high CVD risk. Average levels of ambient PM2.5 and ozone were calculated from local monitoring stations. Residential greenness was estimated using satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for a 200-m and 1-km radius around each participant's home. Participants were 51% female, average age of 52 yr, and 79% had diagnosed hypertension. In multiple linear regression models, residential NDVI was negatively associated with augmentation index (-3.8% per 0.1 NDVI). Ambient levels of PM2.5 [per interquartile range (IQR) of 6.9 μg/m3] were positively associated with augmentation pressure (3.1 mmHg), pulse pressure (5.9 mmHg), and aortic systolic pressure (8.1 mmHg). Ozone (per IQR of 0.03 ppm) was positively associated with augmentation index (5.5%), augmentation pressure (3.1 mmHg), and aortic systolic pressure (10 mmHg). In areas of low greenness, both PM2.5 and ozone were positively associated with pulse pressure. Additionally, ozone was positively associated with augmentation pressure and systolic blood pressure. However, in areas of high greenness, there was no significant association between indices of arterial stiffness with either PM2.5 or ozone. Residential proximity to greenness is associated with lower values of arterial stiffness. Residential greenness may mitigate the adverse effects of PM2.5 and ozone on arterial stiffness.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Previous studies have linked proximity to green spaces with lower cardiovascular disease risk. However, the mechanisms underlying the salutary effects of green areas are not known. In our study of participants at risk of cardiovascular disease, we found that arterial stiffness was positively associated with short-term exposure to PM2.5, PM10, and ozone and inversely associated with greenness. The association between pollution and arterial stiffness was attenuated in areas of high greenness, suggesting that living green neighborhoods can lessen the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

PubMed ID: 33416460 Exiting the NIEHS site

MeSH Terms: Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Air Pollutants/adverse effects*; Air Pollution/adverse effects*; Arterial Pressure; Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology; Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology; Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control*; City Planning; Environmental Exposure/adverse effects*; Female; Hemodynamics*; Humans; Kentucky; Male; Middle Aged; Ozone/adverse effects; Particulate Matter/adverse effects; Protective Factors; Residence Characteristics; Risk Assessment; Risk Factors; Urban Health*; Urbanization*; Vascular Stiffness*; Young Adult

to Top