Title: Size distribution and speciation of chromium in paint spray aerosol at an aerospace facility.
Authors: Sabty-Daily, Rania A; Harris, Patricia A; Hinds, William C; Froines, John R
Published In Ann Occup Hyg, (2005 Jan)
Abstract: Spray painters are potentially exposed to aerosol containing Cr(VI) via inhalation of chromate-based paint spray. Two field studies were conducted at an aerospace facility to determine the size distribution and speciation of Cr(VI) in paint spray aerosol. Sampled paint products consisted of sparingly soluble strontium chromate in an epoxy resin matrix, a matrix generally known for its durability and toughness. Personal aerosol samples were collected using Sierra Marple personal cascade impactors and analyzed for Cr(VI) and total Cr. The size distribution of total Cr particles in the paint aerosol had a Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter (MMAD) of 7.5 mum [Geometric Standard Deviation (GSD = 2.7 mum)] in both field studies. The MMAD of Cr(VI) particles was 8.5 mum (GSD = 2.2 mum). Particles >2 mum constituted 90% or more of the total Cr and the Cr(VI) mass, in all sampled paint aerosols and were lognormally distributed. The target site for respiratory deposition of Cr in the aerosol was estimated based on the mass distribution of Cr according to particle size. On an average, 62% of the Cr and Cr(VI) mass in the paint aerosol consisted of particles >10 mum. This study showed that 71.8% of Cr(VI) mass in paint spray aerosol potentially inhaled by a spray painter may deposit in the head airways region. Only 2.0 and 1.4% of Cr(VI) mass in the paint aerosol may potentially deposit in the alveolar and tracheobronchial region, respectively. The ratio of Cr(VI) mass to total Cr mass was determined in bulk paint and the data indicate that Cr was predominantly in the Cr(VI) valence state, before spraying. The ratio of Cr(VI) mass to total Cr mass was also determined in paint aerosol samples. The data indicated that there was a reduction of Cr(VI) regardless of Cr aerosol particle size. Cr(VI) reduction occurred most likely during the 8 h sample collection time period. These findings are in agreement with the findings that observed Cr(VI) reduction during collection of airborne Cr(VI) in samples of chromic acid mist. The use of Cr(VI) stabilizing sampling media and the storage of samples at lower temperatures (4 degrees C ) during and after sampling may avoid the underestimation of Cr(VI).
PubMed ID: 15591325
MeSH Terms: Aerosols/pharmacokinetics; Aerosols/toxicity*; Air Pollutants, Occupational/toxicity; Aircraft; Carcinogens, Environmental/pharmacokinetics; Carcinogens, Environmental/toxicity; Chromium/pharmacokinetics; Chromium/toxicity*; Humans; Occupational Exposure/adverse effects*; Paint/toxicity*; Particle Size; Pressure; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Respiratory System/metabolism