Title: Differential sensitivity of the SWV and C57BL/6 mouse strains to the teratogenic action of single administrations of cadmium given throughout the period of anterior neuropore closure.
Authors: Hovland Jr, D N; Machado, A F; Scott Jr, W J; Collins, M D
Published In Teratology, (1999 Jul)
Abstract: When administered to mice during gestation, the heavy metal, cadmium, is known to induce malformations of the neural tube, craniofacial region, limbs, trunk, viscera, and axial skeleton that vary in scope and severity among inbred strains of mice. Two strains, C57BL/6 and SWV, were previously shown to differ in their susceptibility to exencephaly induced by many teratogenic treatments, including sodium 2-ethylhexanoate, hyperthermia, valproic acid, and carbon dioxide, with the SWV strain being consistently more sensitive than the C57BL/6 strain. These findings support the observation of Finnell et al. ( Teratology 38:313-320) of shared hierarchies of relative susceptibility to exencephaly induced by biochemically distinct teratogens, and suggest that the SWV strain would also be more sensitive to exencephaly induced by cadmium. In the present study, pregnant mice from the two strains were exposed to single i.p. injections of cadmium chloride at 4 mg/kg-BW on day 6.5, 7.0, 7.5, 8.0, 8.5, or 9.0 of gestation. Fetuses were removed by cesarean section on day 18 of gestation and scored for malformations. The C57BL/6 strain was observed to be more sensitive than the SWV strain to the induction of exencephaly by cadmium on days 6.5, 7.0, and 8.0, with mean litter percentages of 3.6%, 88.3%, and 62.2%, respectively, compared to 0.0%, 4.1%, and 27.7% for the SWV strain. This finding provides evidence in contrast to the hypothesis of shared hierarchies of sensitivity to teratogen-induced exencephaly. Data on a number of other cadmium-induced malformations are also presented.
PubMed ID: 10413334
MeSH Terms: Abnormalities, Drug-Induced/etiology*; Abnormalities, Multiple/chemically induced*; Animals; Brain/abnormalities*; Cadmium Chloride/administration & dosage; Cadmium Chloride/toxicity*; Female; Gestational Age; Limb Deformities, Congenital/chemically induced; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Inbred Strains; Neural Crest/embryology*; Pregnancy; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Species Specificity; Teratogens/toxicity*