Title: Biotransformation of all-trans-retinol and all-trans-retinal to all-trans-retinoic acid in rat conceptal homogenates.
Authors: Chen, H; Namkung, M J; Juchau, M R
Published In Biochem Pharmacol, (1995 Oct 12)
Abstract: Catalysis of the oxidation of all-trans-retinol (vitamin A1) or of all-trans-retinal to all-trans-retinoic acid (all-trans-RA) by rat conceptal enzymes was investigated during organogenesis. Products of the reaction were identified and quantified with HPLC by comparing their elution times with those of authentic standard retinoids. Under the incubation and assay conditions utilized, all-trans-retinol and all-trans-retinal were converted to readily detectable quantities of all-trans-RA. Rat conceptal homogenates from gestational days 10.5, 11.5 and 12.5 each exhibited enzymatic activity for oxidation of all-trans-retinol and all-trans-retinal to all-trans-RA. Enzymatic catalysis was verified by showing that: (1) both reactions were coenzyme dependent; (2) the rates of reactions increased as concentrations of conceptal protein increased; (3) both reactions were abolished by heating the tissue homogenates (100 degrees, 5 min); and (4) both reactions exhibited substrate saturation. Under the same experimental conditions, formation of all-trans-RA from all-trans-retinol was much slower than from all-trans-retinal, suggesting that oxidation of all-trans-retinol to all-trans-retinal was the rate-limiting step for biotransformation of all-trans-retinol to all-trans-RA in embryonic tissues. When NAD or NADP were replaced by NADH or NADPH, the rate of oxidation of all-trans-retinol was reduced markedly, indicating that the reaction was catalyzed primarily by an NAD/NADP-dependent dehydrogenase(s). Carbon monoxide (CO:O2 = 90:10) did not inhibit the reaction. NAD appeared to be a more effective cofactor than NADP in catalyzing oxidation of all-trans-retinal to all-trans-RA. When NAD was omitted, formation of all-trans-RA from all-trans-retinal was reduced by approximately 55%. Replacing NAD by NADH or NADPH also reduced the conversion of all-trans-retinal to all-trans-RA by about 60%. These observations suggested at least two pathways for the generation of all-trans-RA from all-trans-retinal in embryos: oxidation catalyzed by an NAD/NADP-dependent dehydrogenase(s) and oxidation catalyzed by an oxidase(s) that did not require NAD, NADH, NADP or NADPH. Conversion of all-trans-retinol to all-trans-RA was inhibited strongly by low concentrations of citral, but not by high concentrations of sodium azide, 4-methylpyrazole, or metyrapone. Similarly, oxidation of all-trans-retinal was inhibited strongly by citral but not by metyrapone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
PubMed ID: 7488242
MeSH Terms: Animals; Biotransformation; Embryo, Mammalian/enzymology*; Embryonic and Fetal Development; Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology; Gestational Age; In Vitro Techniques; Metyrapone/pharmacology; Monoterpenes*; NAD/pharmacology; NADP/pharmacology; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Rats, Wistar; Retinaldehyde/metabolism*; Terpenes/pharmacology; Tretinoin/metabolism*; Vitamin A/metabolism*