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Person Details: Michael W. Duffel

Superfund Research Program

Michael W. Duffel

University of Iowa
Division of Medicinal and Natural Products Chemistry
College of Pharmacy
Iowa City, Iowa 52242
Phone: 319-335-8840






  • Duffel MW, Tuttle K, Lehmler H, Robertson LW. 2021. Human hepatic microsomal sulfatase catalyzes the hydrolysis of polychlorinated biphenyl sulfates: A potential mechanism for retention of hydroxylated PCBs. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 88(6):103757. doi:10.1016/j.etap.2021.103757 PMID:34688910 PMCID:PMC8595862
  • Zhang D, Saktrakulkla P, Tuttle K, Marek RF, Lehmler H, Wang K, Hornbuckle KC, Duffel MW. 2021. Detection and quantification of polychlorinated biphenyl sulfates in human serum. Environ Sci Technol 55:2473-2481. doi:10.1021/acs.est.0c06983 PMID:33502843 PMCID:PMC7924310


  • Sethi S, Morgan RK, Feng W, Lin Y, Li X, Luna C, Koch M, Bansal R, Duffel MW, Puschner B, Zoeller RT, Lehmler H, Pessah IN, Lein PJ. 2019. Comparative analyses of the 12 most abundant PCB congeners detected in human maternal serum for activity at the thyroid hormone receptor and ryanodine receptor. Environ Sci Technol 53:3948-3958. doi:10.1021/acs.est.9b00535 PMID:30821444 PMCID:PMC6457253


  • Dhakal K, Gadupudi GS, Lehmler H, Ludewig G, Duffel MW, Robertson LW. 2018. Sources and toxicities of phenolic polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs). Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 25:16277-16290. doi:10.1007/s11356-017-9694-x PMID:28744683 PMCID:PMC5785587
  • Li X, Holland EB, Feng W, Zheng J, Dong Y, Pessah IN, Duffel MW, Robertson LW, Lehmler H. 2018. Authentication of synthetic environmental contaminants and their (bio)transformation products in toxicology: polychlorinated biphenyls as an example. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 25(17):1-14. doi:10.1007/s11356-017-1162-0 PMID:29322390 PMCID:PMC6015536
  • Parker VS, Squirewell EJ, Lehmler H, Robertson LW, Duffel MW. 2018. Hydroxylated and sulfated metabolites of commonly occurring airborne polychlorinated biphenyls inhibit human steroid sulfotransferases SULT1E1 and SULT2A1. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 58:196-201. doi:10.1016/j.etap.2018.01.010 PMID:29408762 PMCID:PMC6078096
  • Rodriguez EA, Vanle BC, Doorn JA, Lehmler H, Robertson LW, Duffel MW. 2018. Hydroxylated and sulfated metabolites of commonly observed airborne polychlorinated biphenyls display selective uptake and toxicity in N27, SH-SY5Y, and HepG2 cells. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 62:69-78. doi:10.1016/j.etap.2018.06.010 PMID:29986280 PMCID:PMC609219



  • Ekuase EJ, van't Erve TJ, Rahaman A, Robertson LW, Duffel MW, Luthe G. 2016. Mechanistic insights into the specificity of human cytosolic sulfotransferase 2A1 (hSULT2A1) for hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls through the use of fluoro-tagged probes. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 23(3):2119-2127. doi:10.1007/s11356-015-4886-8 PMID:26165989 PMCID:PMC4713379
  • Rodriguez EA, Li X, Lehmler H, Robertson LW, Duffel MW. 2016. Sulfation of lower chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls increases their affinity for the major drug-binding sites of human serum albumin. Environ Sci Technol 50(10):5320-5327. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b00484 PMID:27116425 PMCID:PMC4883002





  • Dhakal K, He X, Lehmler H, Teesch LM, Duffel MW, Robertson LW. 2012. Identification of sulfated metabolites of 4-chlorobiphenyl (PCB3) in the serum and urine of male rats. Chem Res Toxicol 25(12):2796-2804. doi:10.1021/tx300416v PMID:23137097 PMCID:PMC3524396


  • Ekuase EJ, Liu Y, Lehmler H, Robertson LW, Duffel MW. 2011. Structure-activity relationships for hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls as inhibitors of the sulfation of dehydroepiandrosterone catalyzed by human hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase SULT2A1. Chem Res Toxicol 24:1720-1728. doi:10.1021/tx200260h PMID:21913674 PMCID:PMC3196794
  • Gulcan HO, Duffel MW. 2011. Substrate inhibition in human hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase SULT2A1: studies on the formation of catalytically non-productive enzyme complexes. Arch Biochem Biophys 507:232-240. doi:10.1016/ PMID:21187059 PMCID:PMC3058861
  • Joshi SN, Vyas SM, Duffel MW, Parkin S, Lehmler H. 2011. Synthesis of sterically hindered polychlorinated biphenyl derivatives. Synthesis 7:1045-1054. doi:10.1055/s-0030-1258454 PMID:21516177 PMCID:PMC3080045
  • Joshi SN, Vyas SM, Wu H, Duffel MW, Parkin S, Lehmler H. 2011. Regioselective iodination of chlorinated aromatic compounds using silver salts. Tetrahedron 67(39):7461-7469. doi:10.1016/j.tet.2011.07.064 PMID:21918585 PMCID:PMC3170769
  • Kania-Korwel I, Duffel MW, Lehmler H. 2011. Gas chromatographic analysis with chiral cyclodextrin phases reveals the enantioselective formation of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls by rat liver microsomes. Environ Sci Technol 45:9590-9596. doi:10.1021/es2014727 PMID:21966948 PMCID:PMC3216237
  • Liu Y, Lehmler H, Robertson LW, Duffel MW. 2011. Physicochemical properties of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls aid in predicting their interactions with rat sulfotransferase 1A1 (rSULT1A1). Chem Biol Interact 189:153-160. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2010.11.009 PMID:21130751 PMCID:PMC3032042
  • Wu X, Pramanik A, Duffel MW, Hrycay EG, Bandiera SM, Lehmler H, Kania-Korwel I. 2011. 2,2',3,3',6,6'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) is enantioselectively oxidized to hydroxylated metabolites by rat liver microsomes. Chem Res Toxicol 24(12):2249-2257. doi:10.1021/tx200360m PMID:22026639 PMCID:PMC3243785



  • Wangpradit O, Teesch LM, Mariappan S, Duffel MW, Norstrom K, Robertson LW, Luthe G. 2009. Oxidation of 4-chlorobiphenyl metabolites to electrophilic species by prostaglandin H synthase. Chem Res Toxicol 22(1):64-71. doi:10.1021/tx800300t PMID:19105592 PMCID:PMC2637223



  • Liu Y, Apak TI, Lehmler H, Robertson LW, Duffel MW. 2006. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls are substrates and inhibitors of human hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase SULT2A1. Chem Res Toxicol 19(11):1420-1425. PMID:17112228


  • Duffel MW. 1997. Sulfotransferases. Chapter 18 in: Comprehensive Toxicology, 3rd Edition. Vol. 10. Elsevier, NY. pp.407-428.
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