Skip Navigation
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it’s official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.


The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Your Environment. Your Health.

Person Details: Joel Schwartz

Superfund Research Program

Joel Schwartz

Harvard School of Public Health
Landmark Ctr, Suite 415
401 Park Dr.
Boston, Massachusetts 02215
Phone: 617-384-8752
Fax: 617-384-8752


Hazardous Waste Sites

Tar Creek (Ottawa County)

  • Harvard School of Public Health: Research Translation Core



  • Alexeeff SE, Schwartz J, Kloog I, Chudnovsky A, Koutrakis P, Coull BA. 2015. Consequences of kriging and land use regression for PM25 predictions in epidemiologic analyses: insights into spatial variability using high-resolution satellite data. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 25(2):138-144. doi:10.1038/jes.2014.40 PMID:24896768 PMCID:PMC4758216
  • Lakshmanan A, Chiu YH, Coull BA, Just AC, Maxwell SL, Schwartz J, Gryparis A, Kloog I, Wright RJ, Wright RO. 2015. Associations between prenatal traffic-related air pollution exposure and birth weight: Modification by sex and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index. Environ Res 137:268-277. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2014.10.035 PMID:25601728 PMCID:PMC4354711
  • Sanders AP, Burris HH, Just AC, Motta V, Svensson K, Mercado-Garcia A, Pantic I, Schwartz J, Tellez-Rojo MM, Wright RO, Baccarelli A. 2015. microRNA expression in the cervix during pregnancy is associated with length of gestation. Epigenetics 10(3):221-228. doi:10.1080/15592294.2015.1006498 PMID:25611922 PMCID:PMC4623248


  • Bliznyuk N, Paciorek CJ, Schwartz J, Coull BA. 2014. Nonlinear predictive latent process models for integrating spatio-temporal exposure data from multiple sources. Annals of Applied Statistics 8(3):1538-1560. doi:10.1214/14-aoas737
  • Burris HH, Baccarelli A, Motta V, Byun H, Just AC, Mercado-Garcia A, Schwartz J, Svensson K, Tellez-Rojo MM, Wright RO. 2014. Association between length of gestation and cervical DNA methylation of PTGER2 and LINE 1-HS. Epigenetics 9(8):1083-1091. doi:10.4161/epi.29170 PMID:24827772 PMCID:PMC4164493
  • Fossati S, Baccarelli A, Zanobetti A, Hoxha M, Vokonas PS, Wright RO, Schwartz J. 2014. Ambient particulate air pollution and microRNAs in elderly men. Epidemiology 25(1):68-78. doi:10.1097/ede.0000000000000026 PMID:24257509 PMCID:PMC3977338
  • Orenstein ST, Thurston SW, Bellinger DC, Schwartz J, Amarasiriwardena CJ, Altshul LM, Korrick SA. 2014. Prenatal organochlorine and methylmercury exposure and memory and learning in school-age children in communities near the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Site, Massachusetts. Environ Health Perspect 122:1253-1259. doi:10.1289/ehp.1307804 PMID:25062363 PMCID:PMC4216164
  • Zanobetti A, Coull BA, Gryparis A, Kloog I, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, Wright RO, Gold DR, Schwartz J. 2014. Associations between arrhythmia episodes and temporally and spatially resolved black carbon and particulate matter in elderly patients. Occup Environ Med 71(3):201-207. doi:10.1136/oemed-2013-101526 PMID:24142987 PMCID:PMC4371778


  • Ciesielski T, Bellinger DC, Schwartz J, Hauser R, Wright RO. 2013. Associations between cadmium exposure and neurocognitive test scores in a cross-sectional study of US adults. Environ Health 12:13. doi:10.1186/1476-069x-12-13 PMID:23379984 PMCID:PMC3599125
  • Eum K, Wang FT, Schwartz J, Hersh CP, Kelsey KT, Wright RO, Spiro, III A, Sparrow D, Hu H, Weisskopf MG. 2013. Modifying roles of glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms on the association between cumulative lead exposure and cognitive function. Neurotoxicology 39C:65-71. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2013.08.002 PMID:23958642 PMCID:PMC3844089
  • Power MC, Weisskopf MG, Alexeeff SE, Wright RO, Coull BA, Spiro, III A, Schwartz J. 2013. Modification by hemochromatosis gene polymorphisms of the association between traffic-related air pollution and cognition in older men: a cohort study. Environ Health 12:16. doi:10.1186/1476-069x-12-16 PMID:23413885 PMCID:PMC3599892



  • Claus Henn B, Kim J, Wessling-Resnick M, Tellez-Rojo MM, Jayawardene I, Ettinger AS, Hernandez-Avila M, Schwartz J, Christiani DC, Hu H, Wright RO. 2011. Associations of iron metabolism genes with blood manganese levels: a population-based study with validation data from animal models. Environ Health 10(1):97. doi:10.1186/1476-069X-10-97 PMID:22074419 PMCID:PMC3248860
  • Claus Henn B, Wright RO, Schnaas L, Ettinger AS, Schwartz J, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Hernandez-Avila M, Amarasiriwardena CJ, Hu H, Bellinger DC, Tellez-Rojo MM. 2011. Associations of early childhood manganese and lead coexposure with neurodevelopment. Environ Health Perspect 120:126-131. doi:10.1289/ehp.1003300 PMID:21885384 PMCID:PMC3261931
  • Eum K, Nie LH, Schwartz J, Vokonas PS, Sparrow D, Hu H, Weisskopf MG. 2011. Prospective cohort study of lead exposure and electrocardiographic conduction disturbances in the Department of Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. Environ Health Perspect 119:940-944. doi:10.1289/ehp.1003279 PMID:21414889 PMCID:PMC3223010
  • Peters J, Kubzansky LD, Ikeda A, Spiro, III A, Wright RO, Weisskopf MG, Kim D, Sparrow D, Nie LH, Hu H, Schwartz J. 2011. Childhood and adult socioeconomic position, cumulative lead levels, and pessimism in later life: the VA Normative Aging Study. Am J Epidemiol 174:1345-1353. doi:10.1093/aje/kwr269 PMID:22071587 PMCID:PMC3276297
  • Peters JL, Kubzansky LD, Ikeda A, Fang SC, Sparrow D, Weisskopf MG, Wright RO, Vokonas PS, Hu H, Schwartz J. 2011. Lead concentrations in relation to multiple biomarkers of cardiovascular disease: the Normative Aging Study. Environ Health Perspect 120:361-366. doi:10.1289/ehp.1103467 PMID:22142875 PMCID:PMC3295335
  • Power MC, Weisskopf MG, Coull BA, Spiro, III A, Schwartz J. 2011. Traffic-related air pollution and cognitive function in a cohort of older men. Environ Health Perspect 119:682-687. doi:10.1289/ehp.1002767 PMID:21172758 PMCID:PMC3094421
  • Roy A, Hu H, Bellinger DC, Mukherjee B, Modali R, Nasaruddin K, Schwartz J, Wright RO, Ettinger AS, Palaniapan K, Balakrishnan K. 2011. Hemoglobin, lead exposure, and intelligence quotient: effect modification by the DRD2 Taq IA polymorphism. Environ Health Perspect 119(1):144-149. doi:10.1289/ehp.0901878 PMID:21205584 PMCID:PMC3018494
  • Schwartz J, Bellinger DC, Glass T. 2011. Expanding the scope of environmental risk assessment to better include differential vulnerability and susceptibility. Am J Public Health 101Suppl1:S88-93. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300268 PMID:22021314 PMCID:PMC3222479
  • Schwartz J, Bellinger DC, Glass T. 2011. Expanding the scope of risk assessment: methods of studying differential vulnerability and susceptibility. Am J Public Health 101Suppl1:S102-9. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300367 PMID:22021313 PMCID:PMC3222483
  • Schwartz J, Bellinger DC, Glass T. 2011. Exploring potential sources of differential variability and susceptibility in risk from environmental hazards to expand the scope of risk assessment. Am J Public Health 101Suppl1:S94-S101. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300272 PMID:22021315 PMCID:PMC3222466
  • Wang S, Coull BA, Schwartz J, Mittleman MA, Wellenius GA. 2011. Potential for bias in case-crossover studies with shared exposures analyzed using SAS. Am J Epidemiol 174(1):118-24. doi:10.1093/aje/kwr038 PMID:21540322 PMCID:PMC3133813
  • Wilker EH, Alexeeff SE, Suh H, Vokonas PS, Baccarelli A, Schwartz J. 2011. Ambient pollutants, polymorphisms associated with microRNA processing and adhesion molecules: the Normative Aging Study. Environ Health 21(10):45. doi:10.1186/1476-069X-10-45 PMID:21600003 PMCID:PMC3124411


  • Claus Henn B, Ettinger AS, Schwartz J, Tellez-Rojo MM, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Hernandez-Avila M, Schnaas L, Amarasiriwardena CJ, Bellinger DC, Hu H, Wright RO. 2010. Early postnatal blood manganese levels and children's neurodevelopment. Epidemiology 21(4):433-439. doi:10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181df8e52 PMID:20549838 PMCID:PMC3127440
  • Park S, Elmarsafawy S, Mukherjee B, Spiro, III A, Vokonas PS, Nie H, Weisskopf MG, Schwartz J, Hu H. 2010. Cumulative lead exposure and age-related hearing loss: The VA Normative Aging Study. Hear Res 269(1-2):48-55. doi:10.1016/j.heares.2010.07.004 PMID:20638461 PMCID:PMC2934752


  • Ettinger AS, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Tellez-Rojo MM, Mercado-Garcia A, Peterson KE, Schwartz J, Hu H, Hernandez-Avila M. 2009. Effect of calcium supplementation on blood lead levels in pregnancy: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Environ Health Perspect 117(1):26-31. doi:10.1289/ehp.11868 PMID:19165383 PMCID:PMC2627861
  • Ettinger AS, Schwartz J, Hu H, Wright RO, Zota AR, Bouchard MF, Amarasiriwardena CJ. 2009. Maternal blood manganese levels and infant birth weight. Epidemiology 20(3):367-373. doi:10.1097/EDE.0b013e31819b93c0 PMID:19289966 PMCID:PMC3113478
  • Ettinger AS, Zota AR, Amarasiriwardena CJ, Hopkins MR, Schwartz J, Hu H, Wright RO. 2009. Maternal arsenic exposure and impaired glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Environ Health Perspect 117(7):1059-1064. doi:10.1289/ehp0800533 PMID:19654913 PMCID:PMC2717130
  • Park SK, Hu H, Wright RO, Schwartz J, Cheng Y, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, Weisskopf MG. 2009. Iron metabolism genes, low-level lead exposure, and QT interval. Environ Health Perspect 117(1):80-85. doi:10.1289/ehp.11559 PMID:19165391 PMCID:PMC2627870
  • Park SK, Tucker KL, O'Neill MS, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, Hu H, Schwartz J. 2009. Fruit, vegetable, and fish consumption and heart rate variability: the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study. Am J Clin Nutr 89(3):778-786. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.26849 PMID:19158214 PMCID:PMC2714396
  • Roy A, Hu H, Bellinger DC, Palaniapan K, Wright RO, Schwartz J, Balakrishnan K. 2009. Predictors of blood lead in children in Chennai, India (2005-2006). Int J Occup Environ Health 15(4):351-9. PMID:19886345
  • Weisskopf MG, Jain N, Nie H, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, Schwartz J, Hu H. 2009. A prospective study of bone lead concentration and death from all causes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer in the Department of Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. Circulation 120(12):1056-1064. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.827121 PMID:19738141 PMCID:PMC2760410


  • Ettinger AS, Hernandez-Avila M, Schwartz J, Tellez-Rojo MM, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Bellinger DC, Hu H, Wright RO, Hopkins MR. 2008. Variants in iron metabolism genes predict higher blood lead levels in young children. Environ Health Perspect 116(9):1261-1266. doi:10.1289/ehp.11233 PMID:18795173 PMCID:PMC2535632
  • Park S, O'Neill MS, Vokonas PS, Sparrow D, Spiro, III A, Tucker KL, Suh H, Hu H, Schwartz J. 2008. Traffic-related particles are associated with elevated homocysteine: the VA normative aging study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 178(3):283-289. doi:10.1164/rccm.200708-1286OC PMID:18467508 PMCID:PMC2542426
  • Park S, O'Neill MS, Vokonas PS, Sparrow D, Wright RO, Coull BA, Nie H, Hu H, Schwartz J. 2008. Air pollution and heart rate variability: effect modification by chronic lead exposure. Epidemiology 19(1):111-120. doi:10.1097/EDE.0b013e31815c408a PMID:18091001 PMCID:PMC2671065
  • Rajan P, Kelsey KT, Schwartz J, Bellinger DC, Weuve J, Spiro, III A, Sparrow D, Smith TJ, Nie H, Weisskopf MG, Hu H, Wright RO. 2008. Interaction of the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase polymorphism and lead burden on cognitive function: the VA normative aging study. J Occup Environ Med 50(9):1053-1061. doi:10.1097/JOM.0b013e3181792463 PMID:18784554 PMCID:PMC3664949
  • Surkan PJ, Schnaas L, Wright RJ, Tellez-Rojo MM, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Hu H, Hernandez-Avila M, Bellinger DC, Schwartz J, Perroni E, Wright RO. 2008. Maternal self-esteem, exposure to lead, and child neurodevelopment. Neurotoxicology 29(2):278-285. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2007.11.006 PMID:18261800 PMCID:PMC2495770


  • Perlstein T, Weuve J, Schwartz J, Sparrow D, Wright RO, Litonjua A, Nie H, Hu H. 2007. Cumulative community-level lead exposure and pulse pressure: the normative aging study. Environ Health Perspect 115(12):1696-1700. doi:10.1289/ehp.10350 PMID:18087585 PMCID:PMC2137129
  • Schwartz J, Wright RO, Hu H. 2007. Lead levels and ischemic heart disease in a prospective study of middle-aged and elderly men: the VA normative aging study. Environ Health Perspect 115(6):871-5. PMID:17589593
  • Weisskopf MG, Proctor SP, Wright RO, Schwartz J, Spiro, III A, Sparrow D, Nie H, Hu H. 2007. Cumulative lead exposure and cognitive performance among elderly men. Epidemiology 18(1):59-66. PMID:17130688


  • Hu H, Tellez-Rojo MM, Bellinger DC, Smith DR, Ettinger AS, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Schwartz J, Schnaas L, Mercado-Garcia A, Hernandez-Avila M. 2006. Fetal lead exposure at each stage of pregnancy as a predictor of infant mental development. Environ Health Perspect 114(11):1730-1735. PMID:17107860 PMCID:PMC1665421
  • Park SK, Schwartz J, Weisskopf MG, Vokonas PS, Wright RO, Coull BA, Nie H, Hu H. 2006. Low-level lead exposure, metabolic syndrome, and heart rate variability: the VA Normative Aging Study. Environ Health Perspect 114(11):1718-24. PMID:17107858
  • Weuve J, Kelsey KT, Schwartz J, Bellinger DC, Wright RO, Rajan P, Spiro, III A, Sparrow D, Aro A, Hu H. 2006. Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase polymorphism and the relation between low level lead exposure and the Mini-Mental Status Examination in older men: the Normative Aging Study. Occup Environ Med 63(11):746-753. PMID:16757504


  • Ettinger AS, Tellez-Rojo MM, Amarasiriwardena CJ, Bellinger DC, Peterson KE, Schwartz J, Hu H, Hernandez-Avila M. 2004. Effect of breast milk lead on infant blood lead levels at 1 month of age. Environ Health Perspect 112(14):1381-1385. PMID:15471729
  • Tellez-Rojo MM, Hernandez-Avila M, Smith DR, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Hernandez-Cadena L, Mercado-Garcia A, Aro A, Schwartz J, Hu H. 2004. Impact of bone lead and bone resorption on plasma and whole blood lead levels during pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol 160(7):668-678. doi:10.1093/aje/kwh271 PMID:15383411
  • Weisskopf MG, Wright RO, Schwartz J, Spiro, III A, Sparrow D, Aro A, Hu H. 2004. Cumulative lead exposure and change in cognition among elderly men: the VA Normative Aging Study. Am J Epidemiol 15(4):S147-S147.
  • Wright RO, Silverman EK, Schwartz J, Tsaih ST, Senter J, Sparrow D, Weiss ST, Aro A, Hu H. 2004. Association between hemochromatosis genotype and lead exposure among elderly men: the normative aging study. Environ Health Perspect 112(6):746-750. PMID:15121519


  • Wright RO, Hu H, Silverman EK, Tsaih S, Schwartz J, Bellinger DC, Weiss ST, Palazuelos E, Hernandez-Avila M. 2003. Apolipoprotein E genotype predicts 24-month Bayley scales infant development score. Pediatric Research 54(6):819-825. PMID:12930912


  • Cheng YW, Schwartz J, Sparrow D, Aro A, Weiss ST, Hu H. 2001. Bone lead and blood lead levels in relation to baseline blood pressure and the prospective development of hypertension: The Normative Aging Study. Am J Epidemiol 153(2):164-171. PMID:11159162
  • Chuang H, Schwartz J, Gonzales-Cossio T, Lugo MC, Palazuelos E, Aro A, Hu H, Hernandez-Avila M. 2001. Interrelations of lead levels in bone, venous blood, and umbilical cord blood with exogenous lead exposure through maternal plasma lead in peripartum women. Environ Health Perspect 109(5):527-532. PMID:11401766


  • Cheng YW, Schwartz J, Vokonas PS, Weiss ST, Aro A, Hu H. 1998. Electrocardiographic conduction disturbances in association with low-level lead exposure: the Normative Aging Study. American Journal of Cardiology 82:594-599. PMID:9732886
  • Cheng YW, Willett W, Schwartz J, Sparrow D, Weiss ST, Hu H. 1998. Relation of nutrition to bone and blood lead levels in middle-aged to elderly men: The Normative Aging Study. Am J Epidemiol 147:1162-1174. PMID:9645795
to Top