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Person Details: Rebecca C. Fry

Superfund Research Program

Rebecca C. Fry

University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill
Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering
140 Rosenau Hall, CB #7431
Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599
Phone: 919-843-6864


Research Briefs



  • Wilson L, Hayes W, Jones C, Eaves LA, Wait K, George A, Freeman B, Mize W, Fowlkes J, Currie J, Burchell M, Gray K, Fry RC, Pieper K. 2024. Lead occurrence in North Carolina well water: importance of sampling representation and collection techniques. Environ Res Lett 19(4):doi:10.1088/1748-9326/ad2b2c


  • Avolio LN, Smith TJ, Navas-Acien A, Kruczynski K, Pisanic N, Randad PR, Detrick B, Fry RC, van Geen AF, Goessler W, Karron RA, Klein SL, Ogburn EL, Wills-Karp M, Alland K, Ayesha K, Dyer B, Islam MT, Oguntade HA, Rahman MH, Ali H, Haque R, Shaikh S, Schulze KJ, Muraduzzaman AK, Alamgir AS, Flora MS, West KP, Labrique AB, Heaney C. 2023. The Pregnancy, Arsenic, and Immune Response (PAIR) Study in rural northern Bangladesh. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 37(2):165-178. doi:10.1111/ppe.12949 PMID:36756808 PMCID:PMC10096093
  • Bulka C, Everson TM, Burt AA, Marsit CJ, Karagas MR, Boyle KE, Niemiec S, Kechris K, Davidson EJ, Yang IV, Feinberg JI, Volk HE, Ladd-Acosta C, Breton CV, O'Shea TM, Fry RC. 2023. Sex-based differences in placental DNA methylation profiles related to gestational age: an NIH ECHO meta-analysis. Epigenetics 18(1):2179726. doi:10.1080/15592294.2023.2179726 PMID:36840948 PMCID:PMC9980626
  • Carberry C, Bangma J, Koval L, Keshava D, Hartwell HJ, Sokolsky M, Fry RC, Rager JE. 2023. Extracellular vesicles altered by a per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance mixture: in vitro dose-dependent release, chemical content, and MicroRNA signatures involved in liver health. Toxicol Sci doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfad108 PMID:37851381
  • Eaves LA, Bulka C, Rager JE, Gardner AJ, Galusha AL, Parsons PJ, O'Shea TM, Fry RC. 2023. Metal mixtures modeling identifies birth weight-associated gene networks in the placentas of children born extremely preterm. Chemosphere 313:137469. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.137469 PMID:36493891 PMCID:10476282
  • Eaves LA, Choi G, Hall EM, Sille FC, Fry RC, Buckley JP, Keil AP. 2023. Prenatal exposure to toxic metals and neural tube defects: a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence. Environ Health Perspect 131(8):86002. doi:10.1289/EHP11872 PMID:37647124 PMCID:PMC10467818
  • Eaves LA, Keil AP, Jukic AM, Dhingra R, Brooks JL, Manuck TA, Rager JE, Fry RC. 2023. Toxic metal mixtures in private well water and increased risk for preterm birth in North Carolina. Environmental Health 22(1):69. doi:10.1186/s12940-023-01021-7 PMID:37845729 PMCID:PMC10577978
  • Eaves LA, Lanier P, Enggasser AE, Chung G, Turla T, Rager JE, Fry RC. 2023. Generation of the Chemical and Social Stressors Integration Technique (CASS-IT) to identify areas of holistic public health concern: an application to North Carolina. Sci Total Environ 862:160409. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.160409 PMID:36436630
  • Freedman AN, Clark J, Eaves LA, Roell K, Oran A, Koval L, Rager JE, Santos HP, Kuban K, Joseph RM, Frazier JA, Marsit CJ, Burt AA, O'Shea TM, Fry RC. 2023. A multi-omic approach identifies an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) regulatory complex of functional epimutations in placentas from children born preterm. Autism Res 16(5):918-934. doi:10.1002/aur.2915 PMID:36938998 PMCID:PMC10192070
  • Shang B, Venkatratnam A, Liu T, Douillet C, Shi Q, Miller M, Cable P, Zou F, Ideraabdullah FY, Fry RC, Styblo M. 2023. Sex-specific transgenerational effects of preconception exposure to arsenite: metabolic phenotypes of C57BL/6 offspring. Arch Toxicol doi:10.1007/s00204-023-03582-5 PMID:37615676
  • Smith TJ, Navas-Acien A, Baker S, Kok C, Kruczynski K, Avolio LN, Pisanic N, Randad PR, Fry RC, Goessler W, van Green A, Buckley JP, Rahman MH, Ali H, Haque R, Shaikh S, Siddiqua TJ, Schulze KJ, West KP, Labrique AB, Heaney C. 2023. Anthropometric measures and arsenic methylation among pregnant women in rural northern Bangladesh. Environ Res 234:116453. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2023.116453 PMID:37343752
  • Yelton S, George A, Tomlinson MS, Bommarito P, Fry RC, Gray K. 2023. Communicating results of drinking water tests from private wells: Designing report-back materials to facilitate understanding. J Environ Health 85(8):8-14. PMID:37621302 PMCID:PMC10448603


  • Bulka C, Enggasser AE, Fry RC. 2022. Epigenetics at the intersection of COVID-19 risk and environmental chemical exposures. Curr Environ Health Rep doi:10.1007/s40572-022-00353-9 PMID:35648356 PMCID:PMC9157479
  • Carberry C, Ferguson SS, Beltran AS, Fry RC, Rager JE. 2022. Using liver models generated from human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for evaluating chemical-induced modifications and disease across liver developmental stages. Toxicol Vitro 83:doi:10.1016/j.tiv.2022.105412 PMID:35688329
  • Carberry C, Turla T, Koval L, Hartwell HJ, Fry RC, Rager JE. 2022. Chemical mixtures in household environments: In silico prediction and in vitro testing of potential join action on PPARy in human liver cells. Toxics 10(5):199. doi:10.3390/toxics10050199 PMID:35622613 PMCID:PMC9146550
  • Chao A, Grossman J, Carberry C, Lai Y, Williams AJ, Minucci JM, Purucker ST, Szilagyi JT, Lu K, Boggess K, Fry RC, Sobus JR, Rager JE. 2022. Integrative exposomic, transcriptomic, epigenomic analyses of human placental samples links understudied chemicals to preeclampsia. Environ Int 167:107385. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2022.107385 PMID:35952468 PMCID:PMC9552572
  • Clark J, Bommarito P, Styblo M, Rubio-Andrade M, Garcia-Vargas GG, Gamble MV, Fry RC. 2022. Maternal serum concentrations of one-carbon metabolism factors modify the association between biomarkers of arsenic methylation efficiency and birth weight. Environmental Health 21(1):68. doi:10.1186/s12940-022-00875-7 PMID:35836250 PMCID:PMC9281096
  • Freedman AN, Eaves LA, Rager JE, Gavino-Lopez N, Smeester L, Bangma J, Santos HP, Joseph RM, Kuban KC, O'Shea TM, Fry RC. 2022. The placenta epigenome-brain axis: placental epigenomic and transcriptomic responses that preprogram cognitive impairment. Epigenomics 14(15):897-911. doi:10.2217/epi-2022-0061 PMID:36073148
  • Gavino-Lopez N, Eaves LA, Enggasser AE, Fry RC. 2022. Developing toxic metal environmental justice indices (TM-EJIs) for arsenic, cadmium, lead, and manganese contamination in private drinking wells in North Carolina. Water (Basel) 14(13):2088. doi:10.3390/w14132088
  • Griggs JL, Chi L, Hanley NM, Kohan M, Herbin-Davis K, Thomas DJ, Lu K, Fry RC, Bradham KD. 2022. Bioaccessibility of arsenic from contaminated soils and alteration of the gut microbiome in an in vitro gastrointestinal model. Environ Pollut 309:doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2022.119753 PMID:35835276
  • Roell K, Koval L, Boyles R, Patlewicz G, Ring C, Rider CV, Ward-Caviness C, Reif DM, Jaspers I, Fry RC, Rager JE. 2022. Development of the InTelligence and Machine LEarning (TAME) Toolkit for introductory data science, chemical-biological analyses, predictive modeling, and database mining for environmental health research. Front Toxicol 4:doi:10.3389/ftox.2022.893924 PMID:35812168 PMCID:PMC9257219
  • Shang B, Venkatratnam A, Hartwell HJ, Douillet C, Cable P, Liu T, Zou F, Ideraabdullah FY, Fry RC, Styblo M. 2022. Ex vivo exposures to arsenite and its methylated trivalent metabolites alter gene transcription in mouse sperm cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 455:116266. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2022.116266 PMID:36209798
  • Xenakis JG, Douillet C, Bell TA, Hock P, Farrington J, Liu T, Murphy C, Saraswatula A, Shaw GD, Nativio G, Shi Q, Venkatratnam A, Zou F, Fry RC, Styblo M, Pardo-Manuel de Villena F. 2022. An interaction of inorganic arsenic exposure with body weight and composition on type 2 diabetes indicators in Diversity Outbred mice. Mamm Genome doi:10.1007/s00335-022-09957-w PMID:35819478
  • Zou B, Santos HP, Xenakis JG, O'Shea M, Fry RC, Zou F. 2022. A mixed-effects two-part model for twin-data and an application on identifying important factors associated with extremely preterm children's health disorders. PLoS One 17(6):doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0269630 PMID:35696398 PMCID:PMC9191696


  • Clark J, Avula V, Ring C, Eaves LA, Howard T, Santos HP, Smeester L, Bangma J, O'Shea TM, Fry RC, Rager JE. 2021. Comparing the predictivity of human placental gene, microRNA, and CpG methylation signatures in relation to perinatal outcomes. Toxicol Sci 183(2):269-284. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfab089 PMID:34255065 PMCID:PMC8478332
  • Clark J, Eaves LA, Gaona AR, Santos HP, Smeester L, Bangma J, Rager JE, O'Shea TM, Fry RC. 2021. Pre-pregnancy BMI-associated miRNA and mRNA expression signatures in the placenta highlight a sexually-dimorphic response to maternal underweight status. Sci Rep 11(1):15743. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-95051-1 PMID:34344912 PMCID:PMC8333418
  • Douillet C, Ji J, Meenakshi IL, Lu K, Pardo-Manuel de Villena F, Fry RC, Styblo M. 2021. Diverse genetic backgrounds play a prominent role in the metabolic phenotype of CC021/Unc and CC027/GeniUNC mice exposed to inorganic arsenic. Toxicology 452:152696. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2021.152696 PMID:33524430 PMCID:PMC7914223
  • Eaves LA, Keil A, Rager JE, George A, Fry RC. 2021. Analysis of the novel NCWELL database highlights two decades of co-occurrence of toxic metals in North Carolina private well water: Public health and environmental justice implications. Sci Total Environ 812:151479. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.151479 PMID:34767890 (ahead of print)
  • Fry RC, Bulka C, Avula V. 2021. Associations of exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances individually and in mixtures with persistent infections: Recent findings from NHANES 1999-2016. Environ Pollut 275:116619. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116619 PMID:33578314 PMCID:PMC7957906
  • Manuck TA, Eaves LA, Rager JE, Sheffield-Abdullah K, Fry RC. 2021. Nitric oxide-related gene and microRNA expression in peripheral blood in pregnancy vary by self-reported race. Epigenetics 1-15. doi:10.1080/15592294.2021.1957576 PMID:34308756
  • Manuck TA, Lai Y, Ru H, Glover AV, Rager JE, Fry RC, Lu K. 2021. Metabolites from mid-trimester plasma of pregnant patients at high-risk for preterm birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol 3(4):doi:10.1016/j.ajogmf.2021.100393 PMID:33991707 (ahead of print)
  • Mischler A, Karakis V, Mahinthakumar J, Carberry C, San Miguel A, Rager JE, Fry RC, Rao BM. 2021. Two distinct trophectoderm lineage stem cells from human pluripotent stem cells. J Biol Chem 296:100386. doi:10.1016/j.jbc.2021.100386 PMID:33556374 PMCID:PMC7948510
  • Sly PD, Trottier BA, Bulka C, Cormier SA, Fobil J, Fry RC, Kim K, Kleeberger SR, Kumar P, Landrigan PJ, Lodrop Carlsen KC, Pascale A, Polack FP, Ruchirawat K, Zar H, Suk WA. 2021. The interplay between environmental exposures and COVID-19 risks in the health of children. Environ Health 20(1):34. doi:10.1186/s12940-021-00716-z PMID:33771185 PMCID:PMC7996114
  • Stone J, Sutrave P, Gascoigne E, Givens MB, Fry RC, Manuck TA. 2021. Exposure to toxic metals and per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances and the risk of preeclampsia and preterm birth in the United States: A review. Am J Obstet Gynecol 3(3):doi:10.1016/j.ajogmf.2021.100308 PMID:33444805 (ahead of print)
  • Styblo M, Venkatratnam A, Fry RC, Thomas DJ. 2021. Origins, fate, and actions of methylated trivalent metabolites of inorganic arsenic: progress and prospects. Arch Toxicol 95(5):doi:10.1007/s00204-021-03028-w PMID:33768354 (ahead of print)
  • Venkatratnam A, Marable CA, Keshava AM, Fry RC. 2021. Relationships among inorganic arsenic, nutritional status CpG methylation and microRNAs: A review of the literature. Epigenet Insights 14:doi:10.1177/2516865721989719 PMID:33615137 PMCID:PMC7868494


  • Buckley JP, Barrett ES, Beamer P, Bennett DH, Bloom MS, Fennell TR, Fry RC, Funk WE, Hamra GB, Hecht SS, Kannan K, Iyer R, Karagas MR, Lyall K, Parsons PJ, Pellizzari ED, Signes-Pastor AJ, Starling AP, Wang A, Watkins DJ, Zhang M, Woodruff TJ. 2020. Opportunities for evaluating chemical exposures and child health in the United States: the Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) Program. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 30:doi:10.1038/s41370-020-0211-9 PMID:32066883 PMCID:PMC7183426
  • Eaves LA, Nguyen HT, Rager JE, Sexton K, Howard T, Smeester L, Freedman AN, Aagaard KM, Shope C, Lefer B, Flynn JH, Erickson MH, Fry RC, Vizuete W. 2020. Identifying the Transcriptional Response of Cancer and Inflammation-Related Genes in Lung Cells in Relation to Ambient Air Chemical Mixtures. Environ Sci Technol 1380713816.
  • Eaves LA, Nguyen HT, Rager JE, Sexton K, Howard T, Smeester L, Freedman AN, Aagaard KM, Shope C, Lefer B, Flynn JH, Erickson MH, Fry RC, Vizuete W. 2020. Identifying the transcriptional response of cancer and inflammation-related genes in lung cells in relation to ambient air chemical mixtures in Houston, Texas. Environ Sci Technol 54:13807-13816. doi:10.1021/acs.est.0c02250 PMID:33064461 PMCID:PMC7757424
  • Eaves LA, Phookphan P, Rager JE, Bangma J, Santos H, Smeester L, O'Shea TM, Fry RC. 2020. A role for microRNAs in the epigenetic control of sexually dimorphic gene expression in the human placenta. Epigenomics 12:doi:10.2217/epi-2020-0062 PMID:32901510
  • Gomez JL, Chen A, Diaz M, Zirn N, Gupta A, Britto C, Sauler M, Yan X, Stewart E, Santerian K, Grant N, Liu Q, Fry RC, Rager JE, Cohn L, Alexis N, Chupp GL. 2020. A network of sputum microRNAs is associated with neutrophilic airway inflammation in asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1:51-64. doi:10.1164/rccm.201912-2360OC PMID:32255668 PMCID:PMC7328332
  • Parada H, Wu T, Fry RC, Farnan L, Smith GJ, Mohler JL, Bensen JT. 2020. Understanding the relationship between environmental arsenic and prostate cancer aggressiveness among African-American and European-American men in North Carolina. Int J Environ Res Public Health 17:doi:10.3390/ijerph17228364 PMID:33198142 PMCID:PMC7697081
  • Payton A, Clark J, Eaves LA, Santos H, Smeester L, Bangma J, O'Shea TM, Fry RC, Rager JE. 2020. Placental genomic and epigenomic signatures associated with infant birth weight highlight mechanisms involved in collagen and growth factor signaling. Reprod Toxicol 96:221-230. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2020.07.007 PMID:32721520 PMCID:PMC7855285
  • Rager JE, Bangma J, Carberry C, Chao A, Grossman J, Lu K, Manuck TA, Sobus JR, Szilagyi JT, Fry RC. 2020. Review of the environmental prenatal exposome and its relationship to maternal and fetal health. Reprod Toxicol 98:1-12. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2020.02.004 PMID:32061676 PMCID:PMC7442624
  • Venkatratnam A, Douillet C, Topping BC, Shi Q, Addo KA, Ideraabdullah FY, Fry RC, Styblo M. 2020. Sex-dependent effects of preconception exposure to arsenite on gene transcription in parental germ cells and on transcriptomic profiles and diabetic phenotype of offspring. Arch Toxicol doi:10.1007/s00204-020-02941-w PMID:33145626


  • Bommarito P, Xu X, Gonzalez-Horta C, Sanchez-Ramirez B, Ballinas-Casarrubias L, Luna RS, Perez SR, Hernandez-Avila JE, Garcia-Vargas G, Del Razo LM, Styblo M, Mendez MA, Fry RC. 2019. One-carbon metabolism nutrient intake and the association between body mass index and urinary arsenic metabolites in adults in the Chihuahua cohort. Environ Int 123:292-300. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2018.12.004 PMID:30553202 PMCID:PMC6369528
  • Fry RC, Bangma J, Szilagyi JT, Rager JE. 2019. Developing novel in vitro methods for the risk assessment of developmental and placental toxicants in the environment. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 378:12. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2019.114635 PMID:31233757 PMCID:PMC6684208
  • Johnson J, Robinson S, Smeester L, Fry RC, Boggess K, Vora NL. 2019. Ubiquitous identification of inorganic arsenic in a cohort of second trimester amniotic fluid in women with preterm and term births. Reprod Toxicol 87:97-99. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2019.05.061 PMID:31128209
  • Meakin C, Martin EM, Szilagyi JT, Nylander-French LA, Fry RC. 2019. Inorganic Arsenic as an Endocrine Disruptor: Modulation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Pathway in Placental Cells via CpG Methylation. Chem Res Toxicol 32(3):493-499. doi:10.1021/acs.chemrestox.8b00352 PMID:30746931
  • Tomlinson MS, Bommarito P, George A, Yelton S, Cable P, Coyte R, Karr J, Vengosh A, Gray K, Fry RC. 2019. Assessment of inorganic contamination of private wells and demonstration of effective filter-based reduction: A pilot-study in Stokes County, North Carolina. Environ Res 177:doi:10.1016/j.envres.2019.108618 PMID:31419714 PMCID:PMC6717535


  • Adebambo OA, Shea D, Fry RC. 2018. Cadmium disrupts signaling of the hypoxia-inducible (HIF) and transforming growth factor (TGF-beta) pathways in placental JEG-3 trophoblast cells via reactive oxygen species. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 342:108-115. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2018.01.010 PMID:29408318
  • Fry RC, Martin EM. 2018. Environmental influences on the epigenome: exposure- associated DNA methylation in human populations. Annu Rev Public Health 39:303-333. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-014629 PMID:29328878
  • Laine JE, Ilievski V, Richardson DB, Herring AH, Styblo M, Rubio-Andrade M, Garcia-Vargas G, Gamble MV, Fry RC. 2018. Maternal one carbon metabolism and arsenic methylation in a pregnancy cohort in Mexico. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 28(5):505-514. doi:10.1038/s41370-018-0041-1 PMID:30068932
  • Meakin C, Martin EM, Santos H, Mokrova I, Kuban K, O'Shea TM, Joseph RM, Smeester L, Fry RC. 2018. Placental CpG methylation of HPA-axis genes is associated with cognitive impairment at age 10 among children born extremely preterm. Horm Behav 101:29-35. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2018.02.007 PMID:29477804
  • Smeester L, Fry RC. 2018. Long-Term Health Effects and Underlying Biological Mechanisms of Developmental Exposure to Arsenic. Curr Environ Health Rep 5(1):134-144. doi:10.1007/s40572-018-0184-1 PMID:29411302
  • Tilley SK, Martin EM, Smeester L, Joseph RM, Kuban KC, Heeren T, Dammann OU, O'Shea TM, Fry RC. 2018. Placental CpG methylation of infants born extremely preterm predicts cognitive impairment later in life. PLoS One 13:16. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0193271 PMID:29513726 PMCID:PMC5841757
  • To K, Fry RC, Reif DM. 2018. Characterizing the effects of missing data and evaluating imputation methods for chemical prioritization applications using ToxPi. BioData Min 11:12. doi:10.1186/s13040-018-0169-5 PMID:29942350 PMCID:PMC5998548


  • Bommarito P, Martin EM, Fry RC. 2017. Effects of prenatal exposure to endocrine disruptors and toxic metals on the fetal epigenome. Epigenomics 9:333-350. doi:10.2217/epi-2016-0112 PMID:28234024
  • Bommarito P, Martin EM, Smeester L, Palys T, Baker E, Karagas MR, Fry RC. 2017. Fetal-sex dependent genomic responses in the circulating lymphocytes of arsenic-exposed pregnant women in New Hampshire. Reprod Toxicol 73:184-195. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2017.07.023 PMID:28793237
  • Brooks SA, Fry RC. 2017. Cadmium inhibits placental trophoblast cell migration via miRNA regulation of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) pathway. Food Chem Toxicol 109:721-726. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2017.07.059 PMID:28774740 PMCID:PMC5656529
  • Franceschini N, Fry RC, Balakrishnan P, Navas-Acien A, Oliver-Williams C, Howard AG, Cole SA, Haack KW, Lange EM, Howard BV, Best LG, Francesconi KA, Umans JG, Tellez-Plaza M. 2017. Cadmium body burden and increased blood pressure in middle-aged American Indians: the Strong Heart Study. J Hum Hypertens 31(3):225-230. doi:10.1038/jhh.2016.67 PMID:27629244 PMCID:PMC5299034
  • Huang MC, Douillet C, Su M, Zhou K, Wu T, Chen W, Galanko JA, Drobna Z, Saunders RJ, Martin EM, Fry RC, Jia W, Styblo M. 2017. Metabolomic profiles of arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase knockout mice: effect of sex and arsenic exposure. Arch Toxicol 91(1):189-202. doi:10.1007/s00204-016-1676-0 PMID:26883664 PMCID:PMC4987274
  • Laine JE, Bailey KA, Olshan A, Smeester L, Drobna Z, Styblo M, Douillet C, Garcia-Vargas G, Rubio-Andrade M, Pathmasiri W, McRitchie S, Sumner SJ, Fry RC. 2017. Neonatal metabolomic profiles related to prenatal arsenic exposure. Environ Sci Technol 51(1):625-633. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b04374 PMID:27997141
  • Martin EM, Smeester L, Bommarito P, Grace MR, Boggess K, Kuban K, Karagas MR, Marsit CJ, O'Shea TM, Fry RC. 2017. Sexual epigenetic dimorphism in the human placenta: implications for susceptibility during the prenatal period. Epigenomics 9(3):267-278. doi:10.2217/epi-2016-0132 PMID:28234023 PMCID:PMC5331919
  • Martin EM, Styblo M, Fry RC. 2017. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying arsenic-associated diabetes mellitus: a perspective of the current evidence. Epigenomics 9(5):doi:10.2217/epi-2016-0097 PMID:28470093 PMCID:PMC5480787
  • Rager JE, Auerbach SS, Chappell G, Martin EM, Thompson CM, Fry RC. 2017. Benchmark Dose Modeling Estimates of the Concentrations of Inorganic Arsenic That Induce Changes to the Neonatal Transcriptome, Proteome, and Epigenome in a Pregnancy Cohort. Chem Res Toxicol 30(10):1911-1920. doi:10.1021/acs.chemrestox.7b00221
  • Smeester L, Bommarito P, Martin EM, Recio-Vega R, Gonzalez-Cortes, Olivas-Calderon E, Lantz RC, Fry RC. 2017. Chronic early childhood exposure to arsenic is associated with a TNF-mediated proteomic signaling response. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 52:183-187. doi:10.1016/j.etap.2017.04.007 PMID:28433805
  • Smeester L, Martin EM, Cable P, Bodnar WM, Boggess K, Vora NL, Fry RC. 2017. Toxic metals in amniotic fluid and altered gene expression in cell‐free fetal RNA. Prenat Diagn 37(13):1364-1366. doi:10.1002/pd.5183 PMID:29111618 PMCID:PMC5766286
  • Tilley SK, Joseph RM, Kuban KC, Dammann OU, O'Shea TM, Fry RC. 2017. Genomic biomarkers of prenatal intrauterine inflammation in umbilical cord tissue predict later life neurological outcomes. PLoS One 12(5):e0176953. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0176953 PMID:28493900 PMCID:PMC5426658
  • Tilley SK, Reif DM, Fry RC. 2017. Incorporating ToxCast and Tox21 datasets to rank biological activity of chemicals at Superfund sites in North Carolina. Environ Int 101:19-26. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2016.10.006 PMID:28153528 PMCID:PMC5351294
  • Tomlinson MS, Bommarito P, Martin EM, Smeester L, Fichorova RN, Onderdonk AB, Kuban KC, O'Shea TM, Fry RC. 2017. Microorganisms in the human placenta are associated with altered CpG methylation of immune and inflammation-related genes. PLoS One 12:13. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0188664 PMID:29240761 PMCID:PMC5730116
  • Vora NL, Smeester L, Boggess K, Fry RC. 2017. Investigating the role of fetal gene expression in preterm birth. Reprod Sci 24:824-828. doi:10.1177/1933719116670038 PMID:27678095


  • Bailey KA, Smith AH, Tokar EJ, Graziano JH, Kim KW, Navasumrit P, Ruchirawat K, Thiantanawat A, Suk WA, Fry RC. 2016. Mechanisms underlying latent disease risk associated with early-life arsenic exposure: current research trends and scientific gaps. Environ Health Perspect 124(2):170-175. doi:10.1289/ehp.1409360 PMID:26115410 PMCID:PMC4749078
  • Bommarito P, Fry RC. 2016. Developmental windows of susceptibility to inorganic arsenic: a survey of current toxicologic and epidemiologic data. Toxicol Res (Camb) 5:1503-1511. doi:10.1039/c6tx00234j
  • Brooks SA, Martin EM, Smeester L, Grace MR, Boggess K, Fry RC. 2016. miRNAs as common regulators of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β pathway in the preeclamptic placenta and cadmium-treated trophoblasts: Links between the environment, the epigenome and preeclampsia. Food Chem Toxicol 98(PtA):50-57. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2016.06.023 PMID:27375191 PMCID:PMC5156314
  • Chitforoushzadeh Z, Ye Z, Sheng Z, LaRue S, Fry RC, Lauffenburger DA, Janes KA. 2016. TNF-insulin crosstalk at the transcription factor GATA6 is revealed by a model that links signaling and transcriptomic data tensors. Sci Signal 9(431):ra59. doi:10.1126/scisignal.aad3373 PMID:27273097 PMCID:PMC4914393
  • Drobna Z, Martin EM, Kim K, Smeester L, Bommarito P, Rubio-Andrade M, Garcia-Vargas GG, Styblo M, Zou F, Fry RC. 2016. Analysis of maternal polymorphisms in arsenic (+3 oxidation state)-methyltransferase AS3MT and fetal sex in relation to arsenic metabolism and infant birth outcomes: Implications for risk analysis. Reprod Toxicol 61:28-38. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2016.02.017 PMID:26928318 PMCID:PMC4970429
  • Harrington JM, Young DJ, Fry RC, Weber FX, Sumner S, Levine KE. 2016. Validation of a metallomics analysis of placenta tissue by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Biol Trace Elem Res 169(2):164-173. doi:10.1007/s12011-015-0431-3 PMID:26155965 PMCID:PMC4763796
  • Laine JE, Fry RC. 2016. A systems toxicology-based approach reveals biological pathways dysregulated by prenatal arsenic exposure. Ann Glob Health 82(1):189-196. doi:10.1016/j.aogh.2016.01.015 PMID:27325076 PMCID:PMC4989910
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  • Adebambo OA, Ray PD, Shea D, Fry RC. 2015. Toxicological responses of environmental mixtures: Environmental metal mixtures display synergistic induction of metal-responsive and oxidative stress genes in placental cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 289(3):534-541. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2015.10.005 PMID:26472158 PMCID:PMC4763604
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  • Martin EA, Gonzalez-Horta C, Rager JE, Bailey KA, Sanchez-Ramirez B, Ballinas-Casarrubias L, Ishida MC, Gutierrez-Torres DS, Ceron RH, Morales DV, Baeza Terrazas FA, Saunders RJ, Drobna Z, Mendez MA, Buse JB, Loomis D, Jia W, Garcia-Vargas GG, Del Razo LM, Styblo M, Fry RC. 2015. Metabolomic characteristics of arsenic-associated diabetes in a prospective cohort in Chihuahua, Mexico. Toxicol Sci 144(2):338-346. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfu318 PMID:25577196 PMCID:PMC4372663
  • Martin EA, Ray PD, Smeester L, Grace MR, Boggess K, Fry RC. 2015. Epigenetics and preeclampsia: defining functional epimutations in the preeclamptic placenta related to the TGF-β pathway. PLoS One 10(10):e0141294. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0141294 PMID:26510177 PMCID:PMC4624949
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  • Sanders AP, Miller SK, Nguyen V, Kotch JB, Fry RC. 2014. Toxic metal levels in children residing in a smelting craft village in Vietnam: A pilot biomonitoring study. BMC Public Health 14:8. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-114 PMID:24495283 PMCID:PMC3922956
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