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Person Details: Lucio G. Costa

Superfund Research Program

Lucio G. Costa

University of Washington
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences
4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Suite 100
Seattle, Washington 98105
Phone: 206-543-2831
Fax: 206-685-4696


Research Briefs


  • Costa LG. Central nervous system toxicity biomarkers. In: Biomarkers in Toxicology, Second Edition. Elsevier, New York, NY. pp.173-186.


  • Garrick JM, Cole TB, Dao K, Phillips A, Costa LG. 2023. Perinatal diesel exhaust exposure causes persistent changes in the brains of aged mice: an assessment of behavioral and biochemical endpoints related to neurodegenerative disease. Environ Toxicol doi:10.1002/tox.23733 PMID:36629036




  • Cole TB, Chang Y, Dao K, Daza R, Hevner R, Costa LG. 2020. Developmental exposure to diesel exhaust upregulates transcription factor expression, decreases hippocampal neurogenesis, and alters cortical lamina organization: relevance to neurodevelopmental disorders. J Neurodev Disord 12:41. doi:10.1186/s11689-020-09340-3 PMID:33327933 PMCID:PMC7745370
  • Costa LG, Cole TB, Dao K, Chang Y, Coburn J, Garrick JM. 2020. Effects of air pollution on the nervous system and its possible role in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Pharmacol Ther 210:107523. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2020.107523 PMID:32165138 PMCID:PMC7245732


  • Chang Y, Daza R, Hevner R, Costa LG, Cole TB. 2019. Prenatal and early life diesel exhaust exposure disrupts cortical lamina organization: Evidence for a reelin-related pathogenic pathway induced by interleukin-6. Brain Behav Immun 78:105-115. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2019.01.013 PMID:30668980 PMCID:PMC6557404









  • Cole TB, Beyer RP, Bammler TK, Park SS, Farin FM, Costa LG, Furlong CE. 2011. Repeated developmental exposure of mice to chlorpyrifos oxon is associated with paraoxonase 1 (PON1)-modulated effects on cerebellar gene expression. Toxicol Sci 123:155-169. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfr157 PMID:21673326 PMCID:PMC3164442
  • Costa LG, Furlong CE. 2011. Paraoxonase 1: Structure, Function and Polymorphisms. Chapter 7 in: Anticholinesterase Pesticides: Metabolism, Neurotoxicity, and Epidemiology. Wiley, Hoboken, NJ. pp.85-96.
  • Costa LG, Giordano G, Furlong CE. 2011. Pharmacological and dietary modulators of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and expression: the hunt goes on. Biochem Pharmacol 81(3):337-344. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2010.11.008 PMID:21093416 PMCID:PMC3077125
  • Giordano G, Cole TB, Furlong CE, Costa LG. 2011. Paraoxonase 2 (PON2) in the mouse central nervous system: a neuroprotective role?. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 256:369-378. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2011.02.014 PMID:21354197 PMCID:PMC3155737


  • Cole TB, Park SS, Li WF, Furlong CE, Costa LG, Jansen KL. 2010. The toxicity of mixtures of specific organophosphorus (OP) compounds is modulated by paraoxonase 1 status. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 660:47-60. doi:10.1007/978-1-60761-350-3_6 PMID:20221870 PMCID:PMC3035621
  • Furlong CE, Suzuki SM, Stevens RC, Marsillach J, Richter RJ, Jarvik GP, Checkoway H, Samii A, Costa LG, Griffith A, Roberts JW, Yearout D, Zabetian CP. 2010. Human PON1, a biomarker of risk of disease and exposure. Chem Biol Interact 187(1-3):355-361. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2010.03.033 PMID:20338154 PMCID:PMC3035622



  • Costa LG. 2007. Toxic Effects of Pesticides. Chapter 22 in: Casarett & Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons. AK.
  • Giordano G, Afsharinejad Z, Guizzetti M, Vitalone A, Kavanagh TJ, Costa LG. 2007. Organophosphorus insecticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon and oxidative stress in neuronal cells in a genetic model of glutathione deficiency. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 219(2-3):181-189. PMID:17084875


  • Costa LG. 2006. Current issues in organophosphate toxicology. Clin Chim Acta 366(1-2):1-13. PMID:16337171
  • Costa LG, Cole TB, Furlong CE. 2006. Gene-environment interactions: paraoxonase (PON1) and sensitivity to organophosphate toxicity. LabMedicine 37(2):109-113.
  • Costa LG, Cole TB, Furlong CE. 2006. Genetic ponymorphisms of human paraoxonase (PON1) and susceptibility to organophosphorous insecticide toxicity. In: 28th International Congress on Occupational Health (ICOH); May 11-16. Milan, Italy.
  • Costa LG, Cole TB, Furlong CE. 2006. PON1 and organophosphate toxicity. In: 2nd International Conference on paraoxonases; September 7-10. Debrecen, Hungary.
  • Costa LG, Cole TB, Vitalone A, Furlong CE. 2006. Paraoxonase polymorphisms and toxicity of organophosphates. Toxicology of Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides
  • Furlong CE, Cole TB, Richter RJ, Brophy V, Carlson CS, Rieder R, Nickerson DA, Costa LG, Ranchalis J, Jarvik GP, Lusis AJ, Shih DM, Tward A. 2006. The functional consequences of polymorphisms in the human PON1 gene. In: 2nd International Conference on paraoxonases; September 7-10. Debrecen, Hungary.
  • Kelada SN, Checkoway H, Kardia SL, Carlson CS, Costa-Mallen P, Eaton DL, Firestone JA, Powers KM, Swanson PD, Franklin GM, Longstreth WT, Smith-Weller T, Afsharinejad Z, Costa LG. 2006. 5' and 3' region variability in the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3), pesticide exposure and Parkinson's disease risk: a hypothesis-generating study. Hum Mol Genet 15(20):3055-3062. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddl247 PMID:16963468
  • Kelada SN, Costa-Mallen P, Costa LG, Checkoway H. 2006. 5' and 3' region variation in the dopamine trasporter gene (SLC6A3) and Parkinson's disease risk. In: Regional North American Annual Meeting of the World. Federation of Neurology - Research Group on Neuroepidemiology; April 7. San Diego, CA.


  • Cole TB, Walter BJ, Shih DM, Tward A, Lusis AJ, Timchalk C, Richter RJ, Costa LG, Furlong CE. 2005. Toxicity of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon in a transgenic mouse model of the human paraoxonase (PON1) Q192R polymorphism. Pharmacogenet Genomics 15(8):589-598. PMID:16007003
  • Costa LG, Cole TB, Furlong CE. 2005. Paraoxonase (PON1): from toxicology to cardiovascular medicine. Acta Biomed 76Suppl2:50-57. PMID:16353344
  • Costa LG, Cole TB, Vitalone A, Furlong CE. 2005. Measurement of paraoxonase (PON1) status as a potential biomarker of susceptibility to organophosphate toxicity. Clin Chim Acta 352(1-2):37-47. PMID:15653099
  • Costa LG, Vitalone A, Cole TB, Furlong CE. 2005. Modulation of paraoxonase (PON1) activity. Biochem Pharmacol 69(4):541-550. PMID:15670573
  • Furlong CE, Cole TB, Jarvik GP, Pettan-Brewer C, Geiss GK, Richter RJ, Shih DM, Tward A, Lusis AJ, Costa LG. 2005. Role of paraoxonase (PON1) status in pesticide sensitivity: genetic and temporal determinants. Neurotoxicology 26(4):651-659. PMID:16112327
  • Furlong CE, Cole TB, Walter BJ, Shih DM, Tward A, Lusis AJ, Timchalk C, Richter RJ, Costa LG. 2005. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) status and risk of insecticide exposure. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 19(3):182-183. PMID:15977192
  • Guizzetti M, Pathak S, Giordano G, Costa LG. 2005. Effect of organophosphorus insecticides and their metabolites on astroglial cell proliferation. Toxicology 215(3):182-190. PMID:16102884
  • Kelada SN, Costa-Mallen P, Checkoway H, Carlson CS, Smith-Weller T, Swanson PD, Franklin GM, Longstreth WT, Afsharinejad Z, Costa LG. 2005. Dopamine transporter (SLC6A3) 5' region haplotypes significantly affect transcriptional activity in vitro but are not associated with Parkinson's disease. Pharmacogenet Genomics 15(9):659-668. PMID:16041244


  • Costa LG, Kelada SN, Costa-Mallen P, Farin FM, Viernes HA, Smith-Weller T, Franklin GM, Longstreth WT, Swanson PD, Checkoway H, Furlong CE. 2004. Paraoxonase 2 (PON2) polymorphisms and Parkinson's disease. Neurosci Res Commun 34(3):130-135.
  • Costa-Mallen P, Afsharinejad Z, Kelada SN, Costa LG, Franklin GM, Swanson PD, Longstreth WT, Viernes HA, Farin FM, Smith-Weller T, Checkoway H. 2004. DNA sequence analysis of monoamine oxidase B gene coding and promoter regions in Parkinson's disease cases and unrelated controls. Movement Disorders 19(1):76-83. PMID:14743364


  • Cole TB, Jampsa RL, Walter BJ, Arndt TL, Richter RJ, Shih DM, Tward A, Lusis AJ, Jack RM, Costa LG, Furlong CE. 2003. Expression of human paraoxonase (PON1) during development. Pharmacogenet Genomics 13(6):357-364. PMID:12777966
  • Costa LG, Cole TB, Furlong CE. 2003. Polymorphisms of paraoxonse (PONl)and their significance in clinical toxicology of organophosphates. Toxicology 41(1):37-45. PMID:12645966
  • Costa LG, Cole TB, Jarvik GP, Furlong CE. 2003. Functional genomic of the paraoxonase (PON1) polymorphisms: effects on pesticide sensitivity, cardiovascular disease, and drug metabolism. Annu Rev Med 54:371-392. doi:10.1146/ PMID:12525679
  • Costa LG, Richter RJ, Li WE, Cole TB, Guizzetti M, Furlong CE. 2003. Paraoxonase (PON 1) as a biomarker of susceptibility for organophosphate toxicity. Biomarkers 8(1):1-12. doi:10.1080/13547500210148315 PMID:12519632
  • Guizzetti M, Bordi F, Dieguez-Acuna FJ, Vitalone A, Madia F, Woods JS, Costa LG. 2003. Nuclear factor kappa B activation by muscarinic receptors in astroglial cells: effect of ethanol. Neuroscience 120(4):841-950. PMID:12927200
  • Kelada SN, Costa-Mallen P, Checkoway H, Costa LG. 2003. Exploration of alternative splicing of monoamine oxidase B transcripts by the intron 13 polymorphism. In: Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Society of Toxicology (SOT), March 9-13, 2003. Salt Lake City, UT.
  • Kelada SN, Costa-Mallen P, Checkoway H, Viernes HA, Farin FM, Costa LG, Longstreth WT, Furlong CE, Jarvik GP, Swanson PD. 2003. Paraoxonase 1 promoter and coding region polymorphisms in Parkinson's disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 74(4):546-547. PMID:12640090


  • Costa LG, Furlong CE. 2002. Perspectives in PONI research. Chapter 10. In: Paraoxonase (PON1) in Health and Disease: Basic and Clinical Aspects. Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp.197-210.
  • Costa LG, Li WF, Richter RJ, Shih DM, Lusis AJ, Furlong CE. 2002. PONl and organophosphate toxicity. Chapter 8. In: Paraoxonase (PON1) in Health and Disease: Basic and Clinical Aspects. Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp.165-183.
  • Costa-Mallen P, Kelada SN, Viernes HA, Srinouanprachanh SL, Farin FM, Costa LG, Checkoway H. 2002. DNA sequencing analysis of the monoamine oxidase B gene coding region in Parkinson's disease cases and controls. In: Proceedings of the Tenth International Aamine Oxidases Workshop, August. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • Furlong CE, Cole TB, Jarvik GP, Costa LG. 2002. Pharmacogenomic considerations of the paraoxonase polymorphisms. Pharmacogenet Genomics 3(3):341-348. PMID:12052142
  • Kelada SN, Costa-Mallen P, Costa LG, Smith-Weller T, Franklin GM, Swanson PD, Longstreth WT, Checkoway H. 2002. Gender difference in the interaction of smoking and monoamine oxidase B intron 13 genotype in Parkinson's disease. Neurotoxicology 23(4-5):515-519. PMID:12428723
  • Lu H, Guizzetti M, Costa LG. 2002. Inorganic lead activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-mitogen-activated protein kinase-p90(RSK) signaling pathway in human astrocytoma cells via a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 300(3):818-823. PMID:11861786


  • Costa LG. 2001. Pesticide exposure: differential risk for neurotoxic outcomes due to enzyme polymorphisms. Neurotoxicology 1(3):511-523.
  • Lu H, Guizzetti M, Costa LG. 2001. Inorganic lead stimulates DNA synthesis in human astrocytoma cells: role of protein kinase Calpha. J Neurochem 78(3):590-599. PMID:11483662


  • Costa-Mallen P, Checkoway H, Fishel M, Cohen AW, Smith-Weller T, Franklin GM, Swanson PD, Costa LG. 2000. The EcoRV genetic polymorphism of human monoamine oxidase type A is not associated with Parkinson's disease and does not modify the effect of smoking on Parkinson's disease. Neurosci Lett 278(1-2):33-36. PMID:10643794
  • Costa-Mallen P, Costa LG, Smith-Weller T, Franklin GM, Swanson PD, Checkoway H. 2000. Genetic polymorphism of dopamine D2 receptors in Parkinson's disease and interactions with cigarette smoking and MAO-B intron 13 polymorphism. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 69(4):535-7. PMID:10990520


  • Alexander BH, Checkoway H, Costa-Mallen P, Faustman EM, Woods JS, Kelsey KT, Van Netten C, Costa LG. 1998. Interaction of blood lead and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase genotype on markers of heme synthesis and sperm production in lead smelter workers. Environ Health Perspect 106(4):213-216. PMID:9495797 PMCID:PMC1532970
  • Checkoway H, Farin FM, Costa-Mallen P, Kirchner SC, Costa LG. 1998. Genetic polymorphisms in Parkinson's disease. Neurotoxicology 19:635-643. PMID:9745923
  • Checkoway H, Franklin GM, Costa-Mallen P, Smith-Weller T, Dilley J, Swanson PD, Costa LG. 1998. A genetic polymorphism of MAO-B modifies the association of cigarette smoking and Parkinson's disease. Neurology 50(5):1458-1461. PMID:9596006


  • Costa-Mallen P, Checkoway H, Levy D, Smith-Weller T, Franklin GM, Swanson PD, Costa LG. 1997. Association of a polymorphism in intron 13 of the monoamine oxidase B gene with Parkinson's Disease. Am J Med Genet 74:154-156. PMID:9129714


  • Costa LG. 1996. Biomarker research in neurotoxicology: the role of mechanistic studies to bridge the gap between the laboratory and epidemiological investigations. Environ Health Perspect 104(S1):55-67. PMID:8722110
  • Costa LG. 1996. Role of cell signalling in neurotoxicity. In: Comprehensive Toxicology, Vol. 11: Nervous System and Behavioral Toxicology. Elsevier,


  • Costa LG. 1995. Effect of developmental neurotoxicants on muscarinic receptors and intracellular signalling pathways. In: Receptors Dynamics in Neural Development. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. pp.305-320.
  • Costa LG, Manzo L. 1995. Biochemical markers of neurotoxicity: research strategies and epidemiological applications. Toxicol Lett 77(1-3):137-144. PMID:7618127
  • Costa-Mallen P, Auger CB, Traver DJ, Costa LG. 1995. Identification of m3, m4 and m5 subtypes of muscarinic receptor mRNA in human blood mononuclear cells. J Neuroimmunol 60(1-2):45-51. PMID:7642747
  • Manzo L, Castoldia AF, Coccinia T, Rossia AD, Nicoteraa P, Costa LG. 1995. Mechanisms of neurotoxicity: applications to human biomonitoring. Toxicol Lett 77(1-3):63-72. PMID:7618170


  • Furlong CE, Costa LG, Hassett C, Richter RJ, Sundstrom JA, Adler DA, Disteche CM, Omiecinski CJ, Chapline CM, Crabb JW, Humbert R. 1993. Human and rabbit paraoxonases: purification, cloning, sequencing, mapping and role of polymorphism in organophosphate detoxification. Chem Biol Interact 87(1-3):35-48. PMID:8393745
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