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Person Details: Carol L. Folt

Superfund Research Program

Carol L. Folt

Dartmouth College
Department of Biological Sciences
Provost Dean of the Faculty
Crosby Hall
Hanover, New Hampshire 03755-3576
Phone: 603-646-3999
Fax: 603-646-1347


Research Briefs

Hazardous Waste Sites

Elizabeth Mine

  • Dartmouth College: Methylmercury Production and Fate in Response to Multiple Environmental Factors

Former Jo Whiten Co.

  • Dartmouth College: Variation in Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification of Metals in Lakes throughout the Northeastern Region of the U.S.A.

George Lay Property

  • Dartmouth College: Variation in Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification of Metals in Lakes throughout the Northeastern Region of the U.S.A.



  • Shaw JR, Colbourne JK, Glaholt SP, Turner E, Folt CL, Chen CY. 2019. Dynamics of cadmium acclimation in Daphnia pulex: linking fitness costs, cross-tolerance, and hyper-induction of metallothionein. Environ Sci Technol 53:14670-14678. doi:10.1021/acs.est.9b05006 PMID:31738529





  • Gilbert-Diamond D, Cottingham KL, Gruber JF, Punshon T, Sayarath V, Gandolfi A, Baker E, Jackson BP, Folt CL, Karagas MR. 2011. Rice consumption contributes to arsenic exposure in US women. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(51):20656-20660. doi:10.1073/pnas.1109127108 PMID:22143778 PMCID:PMC3251121
  • Ward DM, Nislow KH, Folt CL. 2011. Seasonal shift in the effects of predators on juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) energetics. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 68:2080-2089. doi:10.1139/f2011-123 PMID:27812237 PMCID:PMC5089841



  • Ward DM, Nislow KH, Folt CL. 2009. Increased population density and suppressed prey biomass: relative impacts on juvenile Atlantic salmon growth. Trans Am Fish Soc 138(1):135-143. doi:10.1577/T08-128.1



  • Hogan LS, Marschall E, Folt CL, Stein R. 2007. How non-native species in Lake Erie influence trophic transfer of mercury and lead to top predators. Journal of Great Lakes Research 33(1):46-61. doi:10.3394/0380-1330(2007)33[46:HNSILE]2.0.CO;2
  • Karimi R, Chen CY, Pickhardt PC, Fisher NS, Folt CL. 2007. Stoichiometric controls of mercury dilution by growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104(18):7477-7482. doi:10.1073/pnas.0611261104 PMID:17456601 PMCID:PMC1863492
  • Shaw JR, Glaholt SP, Greenberg NS, Sierra-Alvarez R, Folt CL. 2007. Acute toxicity of arsenic to Daphnia pulex: influence of organic functional groups and oxidation state. Environ Toxicol Chem 26(7):1532-7. PMID:17665696
  • Sturup S, Folt CL, Karagas MR, Rees JR, Chen CY. 2007. Toenail mercury and dietary fish consumption. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 17(1):25-30. doi:10.1038/sj.jes.7500516 PMID:16912698
  • Ward DM, Nislow KH, Armstrong JD, Einum S, Folt CL. 2007. Is the shape of the density-growth relationship for stream salmonids evidence for exploitative rather than interference competition?. J Anim Ecol 76(1):135-138. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2656.2006.01169.x PMID:17184361


  • Karimi R, Folt CL. 2006. Beyond macronutrients: element variability and multielement stoichiometry in freshwater invertebrates. Ecol Lett 9(12):1273-1283. doi:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2006.00979.x PMID:17118001
  • Renshaw CE, Bostick BC, Feng X, Wong CK, Winston ES, Karimi R, Folt CL, Chen CY. 2006. Impact of land disturbance on the fate of arsenical pesticides. J Environ Qual 35(1):61-67. doi:10.2134/jeq2005.0096 PMID:16391277
  • Shaw JR, Dempsey TD, Chen CY, Hamilton JW, Folt CL. 2006. Comparative toxicity of cadmium, zinc, and mixtures of cadmium and zinc to daphnids. Environ Toxicol Chem 25(1):182-189. doi:10.1897/05-243R.1 PMID:16494240


  • Chen CY, Folt CL. 2005. High plankton abundance reduces trophic transfer of mercury. SETAC News
  • Chen CY, Folt CL. 2005. High plankton densities reduce mercury biomagnification. Environ Sci Technol 39(1):115-121. doi:10.1021/es0403007 PMID:15667084
  • Chen CY, Stemberger RS, Kamman NC, Mayes BM, Folt CL. 2005. Patterns of Hg bioaccumulation and transfer in aquatic food webs across multi-lake studies in the northeast US. Ecotoxicology 14(1-2):135-147. doi:10.1007/s10646-004-6265-y PMID:15934168
  • Kennedy BP, Nislow KH, Blum JD, Chamberlain CP, Folt CL. 2005. Comparing naturally occurring stable isotopes of nitrogen, carbon and strontium as markers for juvenile salmon rearing locations. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 62(1):48-57.
  • Pickhardt PC, Folt CL, Chen CY, Klaue B, Blum JD. 2005. Impacts of zooplankton composition and algal enrichment on the accumulation of mercury in an experimental freshwater food web. Sci Total Environ 339(1-3):89-101. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.07.025 PMID:15740761
  • Sturup S, Chen CY, Jukosky J, Folt CL. 2005. Isotope dilution quantification of 200Hg2+ and CH3 201Hg+ enriched species-specific tracers in aquatic systems by cold vapor ICPMS and algebraic de-convoluting. J Mass Spectrom 242(2-3):225-231.


  • Chen CY, Hathaway KM, Folt CL. 2004. Multiple stress effects of Vision herbicide, pH, and food on zooplankton and larval amphibian species from forest wetlands. Environ Toxicol Chem 23(4):823-831. PMID:15095876
  • Kennedy BP, Klaue B, Blum JD, Folt CL. 2004. Integrative measures of consumption rates in salmon: expansion and application of a trace element approach. Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 41(5):1009-1020.
  • Nislow KH, Sepulveda A, Folt CL. 2004. Linking hydrologic regime mechanistically to summer growth of age-0 Atlantic salmon. Trans Am Fish Soc 133(1):79-88.
  • Wickre JB, Folt CL, Sturup S, Karagas MR. 2004. Environmental exposure and fingernail analysis of arsenic and mercury in children and adults in a Nicaraguan gold mining community. Arch Environ Health 59(8):400-409. PMID:16268116


  • Quinn MR, Feng X, Folt CL, Chamberlain CP. 2003. Analyzing trophic transfer of heavy metals in stream food webs using nitrogen isotopes. Sci Total Environ 317(1-3):73-89. PMID:14630413


  • Chen CY, Folt CL. 2002. Ecophysiological Responses to warming events by two sympatric zooplankton species. Journal of Plankton Research 24(6):579-589. PMID:12368701
  • Folt CL, Chen CY, Pickhardt PC. 2002. Using plankton food web variables as indicators for the accumulation of toxic metals in fish. In: Technology-Driven Biomarkers And Their Application To Environmentally Associated Disease. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.
  • Kennedy BP, Klaue A, Blum JD, Folt CL, Nislow KH. 2002. Reconstructing the lives of fish using Sr isotopes in otoliths. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59(6):925-929.
  • Nislow KH, Magilligan FJ, Folt CL, Kennedy BP. 2002. Within-basin variation in the short-term effects of a major flood on stream fishes and invertebrates. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 17(2):305-318.
  • Pickhardt PC, Folt CL, Chen CY, Klaue B, Blum JD. 2002. Algal blooms reduce the uptake of toxic methylmercury in freshwater food webs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99(7):4419-4423. doi:10.1073/pnas.072531099 PMID:11904388 PMCID:PMC123663


  • Sillett KS, Chen CY, Folt CL, Hamilton JW. 2001. Using differential display RT-PCR to identify cadmium responsive genes in Daphnia pulex. In: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Meeting of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC), November 11-15, 2001. Baltimore, MD.


  • Chen CY, Folt CL. 2000. Bioaccumulation and diminution of arsenic and lead in a freshwater food web. Environ Sci Technol 34(18):3878-3884.
  • Chen CY, Stemberger RS, Klaue B, Blum JD, Pickhardt PC, Folt CL. 2000. Accumulation of heavy metals in food web components across a gradient of lakes. Limnology and Oceanography 45(7):1525-1536.
  • Kennedy BP, Blum JD, Folt CL, Nislow K. 2000. Using natural strontium isotopic signatures as fish markers: methodology and application. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 57(11):2280-2292.


  • Chen CY, Sillett KS, Folt CL, Whittemore S, Barchowsky A. 1999. Molecular and demographic measures of arsenic stress in D. pulex. Hydrobiologia 410:229-238.
  • Folt CL, Chen CY, Moore MV, Burnaford J. 1999. Synergism and antagonism among multiple stressors. Limnology and Oceanography 44(3):864-877.


  • Harrington RR, Kennedy BP, Chamberlain CP, Blum JD, Folt CL. 1998. 15N enrichment in agricultural catchments: filed patterns and applications to tracking Atlantic Salmon. Chemical Geology 147:281-294.


  • Chen CY, Folt CL. 1997. The potential for hybridization in freshwater copepods. Oecologia 111(4):557-564. doi:10.1007/s004420050271 PMID:28308118
  • Kennedy BP, Folt CL, Blum JD, Chamberlain CP. 1997. Natural isotope markers in salmon. Nature 387:766-767.
  • Kennedy BP, Folt CL, Blum JD, Chamberlain CP. 1997. Tracing rearing tributaries of migrating Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) using Sr isotopes. Nature 387:766.
  • Moore MV, Pace ML, Mather JR, Murdoch PS, Howarth RW, Folt CL, Chen CY, Hemond HF, Flebbe PA, Driscoll CT. 1997. Potential effects of climate change on freshwater ecosystems of the New England/Mid-Atlantic region. Hydrological Processes 11:925-947.
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