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Project Publications: University of Washington: Heme Pathway Polymorphisms in Mercury Neurotoxicity in Adults and Children

Superfund Research Program

Heme Pathway Polymorphisms in Mercury Neurotoxicity in Adults and Children

Project Leader: James S. Woods
Grant Number: P42ES004696
Funding Period: 1995 - 2009
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  • Martin MD, Woods JS, Leroux BG, Rue T, DeRouen TA, Leitao J, Luis S, Kushleika JV. 2008. Longitudinal urinary creatinine excretion values among children. Translational Research 151:51-56. PMID:18061128


  • Heyer NJ, Bittner AC, Echeverria D, Woods JS. 2007. Reply to the Letter to the Editor: Response to comment on: " A cascade analysis of the interaction of mercury and coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPOX) polymorphism on the heme biosynthetic pathway and porphyrin production" by Heyer et al [Toxicol Lett 1612006 159-166]. Toxicol Lett 169(1):93-94. doi:10.1016/j.toxlet.2006.11.011 PMID:17987105
  • Martin MD, Benton T, Bernado MF, Woods JS, Townes BD, Luis S, Leitao J, Rosenbaum G, Castro-Caldas A, Rue T, DeRouen TA. 2007. The association of dental caries with blood lead in children when adjusted for IQ and neurobehavioral performance. Sci Total Environ 377(2-3):159-164. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.12.049 PMID:17363037
  • Martin MD, Woods JS. 2007. The safety of dental amalgam in children. Expert Opin Drug Saf 5:773-781. PMID:17044804
  • Polk WF, Ellis ME, Kushleika JV, Simmonds PL, Woods JS. 2007. RhoA regulation of NF-KB activation is mediated by Cox-2 dependent feedback inhibition of IKK in kidney epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 93(3):1160-1170. PMID:17615156
  • Woods JS, Martin MD, Leroux BG, DeRouen TA, Bernardo MF, Luis S, Leitao J, Simmonds PL, Kushleika JV, Huang Y. 2007. The contribution of dental amalgam to urinary mercury excretion in children. Environ Health Perspect 115(10):1527-1531. doi:10.1289/ehp.10249 PMID:17938746 PMCID:PMC2022658


  • Hujoel PP, Bollen A, Lydon-Rochelle M, Woods JS, Geurtsen W, del Aguila MA. 2005. Mercury exposure from dental filling placement during pregnancy and low birth weight risk. Am J Epidemiol 161(8):734-740. PMID:15800265
  • Woods JS, Echeverria D, Heyer NJ, Simmonds PL, Wilkerson J, Farin FM. 2005. The association between genetic polymorphisms of coproporphyrinogen oxidase and an atypical porphyrinogenic response to mercury exposure in humans. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 206(2):113-120. PMID:15967199


  • Dieguez-Acuna FJ, Polk WF, Ellis ME, Simmonds PL, Kushleika JV, Woods JS. 2004. Nuclear factor kappa B activity determines the sensitivity of kidney epithelial cells to apoptosis: Implications for mercury-induced renal failure. Toxicol Sci 82(1):114-123. PMID:15282405
  • Heyer NJ, Echeverria D, Bittner AC, Farin FM, Garabedian CC, Woods JS. 2004. Chronic low-level mercury exposure, BDNF polymorphism, and associations with self-reported symptoms and mood. Toxicol Sci 81(2):354-363. PMID:15254338
  • Luderer U, Tornero-Velez R, Shay T, Rappaport SM, Heyer NJ, Echeverria D. 2004. Temporal association between serum prolactin concentration and exposure to styrene. Occup Environ Med 61(4):325-333. PMID:15031390


  • Echeverria D, Woods JS, Heyer NJ, Garabedian CC. 2003. Determinants of urinary porphyrins and mercury among dental personnel. In: Proceedings of the 9th Meeting of the International Neurotoxicology Association, June 22-27. Dresden, Germany.
  • Guizzetti M, Bordi F, Dieguez-Acuna FJ, Vitalone A, Madia F, Woods JS, Costa LG. 2003. Nuclear factor kappa B activation by muscarinic receptors in astroglial cells: effect of ethanol. Neuroscience 120(4):841-950. PMID:12927200
  • Heyer NJ, Echeverria D, Woods JS. 2003. Urinary porphyrins and mercury and their associations with symptoms and mood. In: Proceedings of the 9th Meeting of the International Neurotoxicology Association, June 22-27. Dresden, Germany.
  • Ozuah PO, Lesser MS, Woods JS, Choi H, Markowitz M. 2003. Mercury exposure in an urban pediatric population. Ambul Pediatr 3(1):24-26. PMID:12540250


  • Echeverria D, Heyer NJ, Bittner AC, Rohlman D, Woods JS. 2002. Test-retest reliability and factor stability of the behavioral evaluation for epidemiology studies test battery. Percept Mot Skills 95(3Pt1):845-867. doi:10.2466/pms.2002.95.3.845 PMID:12509185
  • Woods JS, Dieguez-Acuna FJ, Ellis ME, Kushleika JV, Simmonds PL. 2002. Attenuation of nuclear factor ICB (NF-KB)promotes apoptosis of kidney epithelial cells: a potential mechanism of mercury-induo: d nephrotoxocity. Environ Health Perspect 110(supp5):819-822. PMID:12426138


  • Dieguez-Acuna FJ, Ellis ME, Kushleika JV, Woods JS. 2001. Mercuric ion attenuates NF-kB activation and DNA binding in normal rat kidney epithelial cells: implications for mercury-induced nephrotoxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 173:176-187. PMID:11437639
  • Echeverria D, Heyer NJ, Bittner AC, Rohlman D, Woods JS. 2001. Behavioral evaluation for epidemiology studies (BEES) battery: Evaluation of reliability & Factor Structure. Advanced Occupational Ergonomic Safety 4:127-134.
  • Evens CC, Martin MD, Woods JS, Soares HL, Bernardo MF, Leitao J, Simmonds PL, Liang L, DeRouen TA. 2001. Examination of dietary methylmercury exposure in the Casa Pia Study of the health effects of dental amalgams in children. J Toxicol Environ Health A 64(7):521-530. PMID:11760151
  • Farin FM, Hitosis Y, Hallagan SE, Kushleika JV, Woods JS, Janssen P, Smith-Weller T, Franklin GM, Swanson PD, Checkoway H. 2001. Genetic polymorphisms of superoxide dismutase in Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders 16(4):705-707. PMID:11481695
  • Frumkin H, Letz R, Williams PL, Gerr F, Pierce M, Sanders A, Elon L, Manning CC, Woods JS, Hertzberg VS, Mueller P, Taylor BB. 2001. Health effects of long-term mercury exposure among chloralkali plant workers. Am J Ind Med 39(1):1-18. PMID:11148011
  • Nichols BG, Woods JS, Luchtel DL, Corral J, Koenig JQ. 2001. Effects of ozone exposure on nuclear factor-kappa B activation and tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in human nasal epithelial cells. Toxicol Sci 60(2):356-362. PMID:11248148
  • Pingree SD, Simmonds PL, Woods JS. 2001. Effects of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) on tissue and urine mercury levels following prolonged methylmercury exposure in rats. Toxicol Sci 61(2):224-233. PMID:11353131
  • Woods JS, Simmonds PL. 2001. HPLC methods for analysis of porphyrins in biological tissues. In: Current Protocols in Toxicology, Unit 8.9. (Maines, M.D., L.G. Costa, D.J. Reed, I.G. Sipes eds.), John Wiley and Sons, Baltimore, MD; Supplement 7. pp.8.9.1-8.9.17.


  • Cobb GP, Bargar TA, Houlis PD, Norman DM. 2000. Using Chlorioallantoic Membranes in Non-lethal Assessments of Exposure and Effects. In: ACS Symposium Series: Pesticides in Wildlife. ACS Press, Washington, DC.
  • Cobb GP, Sands K, Waters M, Wixson BG, Dorward-King E. 2000. Accumulation of heavy metals by vegetables grown in mine tailings. Environ Toxicol Chem 19(3):600-607.
  • Dieguez-Acuna FJ, Woods JS. 2000. Inhibition of NF-kB-DNA binding by mercuric ion: utility of the non-thiol reductant, tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine hydrochloride (TCEP), on detection of impaired NF-kB-DNA binding by thiol-directed agents. Toxicol In Vitro 14(1):7-16.
  • Liang L, Evens CC, Lazoff S, Woods JS, Cernichiari E, Horvat M, Martin MD, DeRouen TA. 2000. Determination of methyl mercury in whole blood by ethylation-GC-CVAFS after alkaline digestion-solvent extraction. J Anal Toxicol 24(5):328-332. PMID:10926355


  • Adair BM, Cobb GP. 1999. Improved preparation of small biological samples for mercury analysis using cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. Chemosphere 38(12):2951-2958. PMID:10214720
  • Thompson SA, White CC, Krejsa CM, Diaz D, Woods JS, Kavanagh TJ. 1999. Induction of glutamate-cysteine ligase in the brains of adult female mice sub-chronically exposed to methylmercury. Toxicol Lett 110:1-10. PMID:10593589
  • Woods JS, Ellis ME, Dieguez-Acuna FJ, Corral J. 1999. Activation of NF-kB in normal rat kidney epithelial (NRK52E) cells is mediated via a redox-insensitive, calcium-dependent pathway. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 154:219-227. PMID:9931281
  • Woods JS, Kavanagh TJ, Corral J, Reese AW, Diaz D, Ellis ME. 1999. The role of glutathione in chronic adaptation to oxidative stress: studies in a normal rat kidney epithelial (NRK52E) cell model of sustained upregulation of glutathione biosynthesis. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 160(3):207-216. PMID:10544055


  • Alexander BH, Checkoway H, Costa-Mallen P, Faustman EM, Woods JS, Kelsey KT, Van Netten C, Costa LG. 1998. Interaction of blood lead and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase genotype on markers of heme synthesis and sperm production in lead smelter workers. Environ Health Perspect 106(4):213-216. PMID:9495797 PMCID:PMC1532970
  • Bittner AC, Echeverria D, Woods JS, Aposhian HV, Naleway CA, Martin MD, Mahurin RK, Heyer NJ, Cianciola ME. 1998. Behavioral effects of low level exposure to Hgo among dental professionals: A cross- study evaluation of psychomotor effects. Neurotoxicol Teratol 20(4):429-439. PMID:9697969
  • Echeverria D, Aposhian HV, Woods JS, Heyer NJ, Aposhian MM, Bittner AC, Mahurin RK, Cianciola ME. 1998. Neurobehavioral effects from exposure to dental amalgam Hgo: new distinctions between recent exposure and Hg body burden. FASEB J 12(11):971-980. PMID:9707169
  • Liang L, Lazoff S, Chan C, Hovat M, Woods JS. 1998. Determination of arsenic in ambient water at sub-part-per-trillion levels by hydride generation Pd coated platform collection and GFAAS detection. Talanta 47(3):569-582. PMID:18967359
  • Woods JS, Martin MD, Leroux BG. 1998. Validity of spot urine samples as a surrogate measure of 24-hour porphyrin excretion rates. Evaluation of diurnal variations in porphyrin, mercury, and creatinine concentrations among subjects with very low occupational mercury exposure. J Occup Environ Med 40:1090-1101. PMID:9871886


  • Cianciola ME, Echeverria D, Martin MD, Aposhian HV, Woods JS. 1997. Epidemiologic assessment of measures used to indicate low level exposure to mercury vapor (Hg). J Toxicol Environ Health A 52(1):19-33. doi:10.1080/00984109708984050 PMID:9269320


  • Alexander BH, Checkoway H, Van Netten C, Muller CH, Ewers TG, Kaufman JD, Mueller BA, Vaughan TL, Faustman EM. 1996. Semen quality of men employed at a lead smelter. J Occup Environ Med 53(6):411-416. PMID:8758037
  • Alexander BH, Checkoway H, Van Netten C, Muller CH, Kaufman JD, Vaughan TL, Mueller BA, Faustman EM. 1996. Paternal occupational lead exposure and pregnancy outcome. Int J Occup Environ Health 2(4):280-285. PMID:9933882
  • Maiorino RM, Gonzalez-Ramirez D, Zuniga-Charles M, Xu Z, Hurlbut KM, Aposhian MM, Dart RC, Woods JS, Ostrosky-Wegman P, Gonsebatt ME, Aposhian HV. 1996. Sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate challenge test for mercury in humans. III. Urinary mercury after exposure to mercurous chloride. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 277(2):938-944. PMID:8627576
  • Martin MD, McCann T, Naleway CA, Woods JS, Leroux BG, Bollen A. 1996. The validity of spot urine samples for low-level occupational mercury exposure assessment and relationship to porphyrin and creatinine excretion rates. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 277(1):239-244. PMID:8613926
  • Rummel KT, Akins JM, Dickerson RL, Hooper MJ. 1996. Porphyrin profile alterations from subchronic 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure in non-traditional laboratory species. Organohalogen Compounds 29:257-261.
  • van Birgelen AP, DeVito MJ, Akins JM, Ross DG, Diliberto JJ, Birnbaum LS. 1996. Relative potencies of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls derived from hepatic porphyrin accumulation in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 138(1):98-109. PMID:8658519
  • Woods JS. 1996. Altered porphyrin metabolism as a biomarker of mercury exposure and toxicity. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 74:210-215. PMID:8723034
  • Woods JS. 1996. Effects of metals on the hematopoietic system and heme metabolism. In: Toxicology of Metals. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL. pp.939-958.
  • Woods JS. 1996. Urinary Markers. In: Methods of Renal Toxicology. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL. pp.19-33.


  • Gonzalez-Ramirez D, Maiorino RM, Zuniga-Charles M, Xu Z, Hurlbut KM, Junco-Munoz P, Aposhian MM, Dart RC, Diaz Gama JH, Echeverria D. 1995. Sodium 2,3-Dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate challenge test for mercury in humans. II. Urinary mercury, porphyrins and neurobehavioral changes of dental workers in Monterrey, Mexico. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 272(1):264-274. PMID:7815341
  • Simmonds PL, Luckhurst CL, Woods JS. 1995. Quantitative evaluation of heme biosynthetic pathway parameters as biomarkers of low level lead exposure in rats. J Toxicol Environ Health A 44(3):351-367. PMID:7897696
  • Woods JS. 1995. Hematopoietic System. In: Organ-Specific Metal Toxicology. Academic Press, FL. pp.287-304.
  • Woods JS. 1995. Porphyrin Metabolism As Indicator of Metal Exposure and Toxicity. In: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, Volume 115, Toxicology of Metals - Biochemical Aspects. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany. pp.19-52.
  • Woods JS. 1995. Urinary porphyrin profiles as a biomarker of mercury exposure and toxicity. In: Proceedings of the Pacific Basin Conference on Hazardous Waste, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 7-12 May, 1995. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. pp.105-112.
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