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Project Publications: Harvard School of Public Health: Controlled Trial in Pregnancy of Dietary Supplements for the Suppression of Bone Resorption and Mobilization of Lead into Plasma

Superfund Research Program

Controlled Trial in Pregnancy of Dietary Supplements for the Suppression of Bone Resorption and Mobilization of Lead into Plasma

Project Leader: Howard Hu
Grant Number: P42ES005947
Funding Period: 1995 - 2006

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  • Goodman C, Bashash M, Green R, Song PX, Peterson K, Schnaas L, Mercado-Garcia A, Martinez-Medina S, Hernandez-Avila M, Martinez-Mier EA, Tellez-Rojo M, Hu H, Till C. 2022. Domain-specific effects of prenatal fluoride exposure on child IQ at 4, 5, and 6 12 years in the ELEMENT cohort. Environ Res 211:doi:10.1016/j.envres.2022.112993 PMID:35276192


  • Betanzos-Robledo L, Cantoral A, Peterson KE, Hu H, Hernandez-Avila M, Perng W, Jansen EC, Ettinger AS, Mercado-Garcia A, Solano-Gonzalez M, Sanchez BN, Tellez-Rojo MM. 2021. Association between cumulative childhood blood lead exposure and hepatic steatosis in young Mexican adults. Environ Res 196:110980. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2021.110980 PMID:33691159 PMCID:PMC8119339


  • Cantoral A, Montoya A, Luna-Villa L, Roldan Valadez E, Hernandez-Avila M, Kershenobich D, Perng W, Peterson K, Rivera J, Tellez-Rojo M, Hu H. 2020. Overweight and obesity status from the prenatal period to adolescence and its association with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in young adults: cohort study. BJOG 127:1200-1209. doi:10.1111/1471-0528.16199 PMID:32145139
  • Kponee-Shovein K, Weisskopf MG, Grashow R, Rotem RS, Coull BA, Schnaas L, del Carmen Hernandez-Chavez M, Sanchez BN, Peterson K, Hu H, Tellez-Rojo M. 2020. Estimating the causal effect of prenatal lead exposure on prepulse inhibition deficits in children and adolescents. Neurotoxicology 78:116-126. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2020.02.013 PMID:32126243
  • Yepes JF, McCormick-Norris J, Vinson LA, Eckert GJ, Hu H, Wu Y, Jansen EC, Peterson KE, Tellez-Rojo MM, Martinez-Mier EA. 2020. Blood levels of lead and dental caries in permanent teeth. J Public Health Dent doi:10.1111/jphd.12384 PMID:32729942


  • Cantoral A, Luna-Villa L, Mercado-Garcia A, Mantilla-Rodriguez A, Lippert F, Liu Y, Peterson K, Hu H, Tellez-Rojo M, Martinez-Mier E. 2019. Fluoride content in foods and beverages from Mexico City markets and supermarkets. Food Nutr Bull doi:10.1177/0379572119858486 PMID:31342782
  • Green R, Till C, Al-Hakeem H, Cribbie R, Tellez-Rojo M, Osorio-Valencia E, Hu H, Schnaas L. 2019. Assessment of neuropsychological performance in Mexico City youth using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 41(3):246-256. doi:10.1080/13803395.2018.1529229 PMID:30336715
  • Kponee-Shovein K, Grashow R, Coull BA, Tellez-Rojo M, Schnaas L, del Carmen Hernandez-Chavez M, Sanchez BN, Peterson K, Hu H, Hernandez-Avila M, Weisskopf MG. 2019. Socio-demographic predictors of prepulse inhibition: A prospective study in children and adolescents from Mexico City. Biol Psychol 145:8-16. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2019.03.003 PMID:30940478
  • Liu Y, Tellez-Rojo M, Sanchez BN, Zhang Z, Afeiche M, Mercado-Garcia A, Hu H, Meeker JD, Peterson K. 2019. Early lead exposure and pubertal development in a Mexico City population. Environ Int 125:445-451. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2019.02.021 PMID:30763831
  • Xu J, Hu H, Wright RJ, Schnaas L, Bellinger DC, Park S, Wright RO, Tellez-Rojo M. 2019. Prenatal lead exposure modifies the association of maternal self-esteem with child adaptive ability. Int J Hyg Environ Health 222(1):68-75. doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2018.08.005 PMID:30146178


  • Jansen EC, Zhou L, Song PX, Sanchez BN, Mercado-Garcia A, Hu H, Solano M, Peterson K, Tellez-Rojo M. 2018. Prenatal lead exposure in relation to age at menarche: results from a longitudinal study in Mexico City. J Dev Orig Health Dis 9:467-472. doi:10.1017/s2040174418000223 PMID:29706142 PMCID:PMC6070415


  • Cantoral A, Tellez-Rojo MM, Ettinger AS, Hu H, Hernandez-Avila M, Peterson KE. 2016. Early introduction and cumulative consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages during the pre-school period and risk of obesity at 8-14 years of age. Pediatr Obes 11(1):68-74. doi:10.1111/ijpo.12023 PMID:25891908
  • Thomas DB, Basu N, Martinez-Mier EA, Sanchez BN, Zhang Z, Liu Y, Parajuli RP, Peterson K, Mercado-Garcia A, Bashash M, Hernandez-Avila M, Hu H, Téllez-Rojo MM. 2016. Urinary and plasma fluoride levels in pregnant women from Mexico City. Environ Res 150:489-495. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2016.06.046 PMID:27423051



  • Arora M, Austin C, Sarrafpour B, Hernandez-Avila M, Hu H, Wright RO, Tellez-Rojo MM. 2014. Determining prenatal, early childhood and cumulative long-term lead exposure using micro-spatial deciduous dentine levels. PLoS One 9(5):e97805. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0097805 PMID:24841926 PMCID:PMC4026445
  • Basu N, Tutino R, Zhang Z, Cantonwine DE, Goodrich JM, Somers EC, Rodriguez L, Schnaas L, Solano-Gonzalez M, Mercado-Garcia A, Peterson KE, Sanchez BN, Hernandez-Avila M, Hu H, Tellez-Rojo MM. 2014. Mercury levels in pregnant women, children, and seafood from Mexico City. Environ Res 135:63-69. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2014.08.029 PMID:25262076 PMCID:PMC4262596
  • Ettinger AS, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Mercado-Garcia A, Kordas K, Wood RJ, Peterson KE, Hu H, Hernandez-Avila M, Tellez-Rojo MM. 2014. Effect of calcium supplementation on bone resorption in pregnancy and the early postpartum: a randomized controlled trial in Mexican women. Nutr J 13(1):116. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-13-116 PMID:25511814 PMCID:PMC4289552
  • Ettinger AS, Roy A, Amarasiriwardena CJ, Smith D, Lupoli N, Mercado-Garcia A, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Tellez-Rojo MM, Hu H, Hernandez-Avila M. 2014. Maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk lead: lactational transfer and contribution to infant exposure. Environ Health Perspect 122:87-92. doi:10.1289/ehp.1307187 PMID:24184948 PMCID:PMC3888576


  • Amarasiriwardena CJ, Jayawardene I, Lupoli N, Barnes RM, Hernandez-Avila M, Hu H, Ettinger AS. 2013. Comparison of digestion procedures and methods for quantification of trace lead in breast milk by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Analytical Methods 5:1676-1681. doi:10.1039/c3ay26321e PMID:24808927 PMCID:PMC4010228
  • Eum K, Wang FT, Schwartz J, Hersh CP, Kelsey KT, Wright RO, Spiro, III A, Sparrow D, Hu H, Weisskopf MG. 2013. Modifying roles of glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms on the association between cumulative lead exposure and cognitive function. Neurotoxicology 39C:65-71. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2013.08.002 PMID:23958642 PMCID:PMC3844089
  • Grashow R, Spiro, III A, Taylor KM, Newton K, Shrairman R, Landau A, Sparrow D, Hu H, Weisskopf MG. 2013. Cumulative lead exposure in community-dwelling adults and fine motor function: Comparing standard and novel tasks in the VA Normative Aging Study. Neurotoxicology 35:154-161. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2013.01.005 PMID:23370289 PMCID:PMC3602137


  • Afeiche M, Peterson KE, Sanchez BN, Cantonwine DE, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Schnaas L, Ettinger AS, Hernandez-Avila M, Hu H, Tellez-Rojo MM. 2011. Prenatal lead exposure and weight of 0-to 5-year-old children in Mexico City. Environ Health Perspect 119:1436-1441. doi:10.1289/ehp.1003184 PMID:21715242 PMCID:PMC3230436
  • Eum K, Nie LH, Schwartz J, Vokonas PS, Sparrow D, Hu H, Weisskopf MG. 2011. Prospective cohort study of lead exposure and electrocardiographic conduction disturbances in the Department of Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. Environ Health Perspect 119:940-944. doi:10.1289/ehp.1003279 PMID:21414889 PMCID:PMC3223010
  • Palaniappan K, Roy A, Balakrishnan K, Gopalakrishnan L, Mukherjee B, Hu H, Bellinger DC. 2011. Lead exposure and visual-motor abilities in children from Chennai, India. Neurotoxicology 32:465-470. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2011.03.011 PMID:21510976 PMCID:PMC3115626


  • Cantonwine DE, Meeker JD, Hu H, Sanchez BN, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Mercado-Garcia A, Fortenberry GZ, Calafat AM, Tellez-Rojo MM. 2010. Bisphenol A exposure in Mexico City and risk of prematurity: A pilot nested case control study. Environ Health 9:62. doi:10.1186/1476-069x-9-62 PMID:20955576 PMCID:PMC2965706
  • Park S, Elmarsafawy S, Mukherjee B, Spiro, III A, Vokonas PS, Nie H, Weisskopf MG, Schwartz J, Hu H. 2010. Cumulative lead exposure and age-related hearing loss: The VA Normative Aging Study. Hear Res 269(1-2):48-55. doi:10.1016/j.heares.2010.07.004 PMID:20638461 PMCID:PMC2934752


  • Ettinger AS, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Tellez-Rojo MM, Mercado-Garcia A, Peterson KE, Schwartz J, Hu H, Hernandez-Avila M. 2009. Effect of calcium supplementation on blood lead levels in pregnancy: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Environ Health Perspect 117(1):26-31. doi:10.1289/ehp.11868 PMID:19165383 PMCID:PMC2627861
  • Ettinger AS, Schwartz J, Hu H, Wright RO, Zota AR, Bouchard MF, Amarasiriwardena CJ. 2009. Maternal blood manganese levels and infant birth weight. Epidemiology 20(3):367-373. doi:10.1097/EDE.0b013e31819b93c0 PMID:19289966 PMCID:PMC3113478
  • Park SK, Hu H, Wright RO, Schwartz J, Cheng Y, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, Weisskopf MG. 2009. Iron metabolism genes, low-level lead exposure, and QT interval. Environ Health Perspect 117(1):80-85. doi:10.1289/ehp.11559 PMID:19165391 PMCID:PMC2627870
  • Park SK, Tucker KL, O'Neill MS, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, Hu H, Schwartz J. 2009. Fruit, vegetable, and fish consumption and heart rate variability: the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study. Am J Clin Nutr 89(3):778-786. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.26849 PMID:19158214 PMCID:PMC2714396
  • Roy A, Hu H, Bellinger DC, Palaniapan K, Wright RO, Schwartz J, Balakrishnan K. 2009. Predictors of blood lead in children in Chennai, India (2005-2006). Int J Occup Environ Health 15(4):351-9. PMID:19886345
  • Weisskopf MG, Jain N, Nie H, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, Schwartz J, Hu H. 2009. A prospective study of bone lead concentration and death from all causes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer in the Department of Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. Circulation 120(12):1056-1064. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.827121 PMID:19738141 PMCID:PMC2760410


  • Ettinger AS, Hernandez-Avila M, Schwartz J, Tellez-Rojo MM, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Bellinger DC, Hu H, Wright RO, Hopkins MR. 2008. Variants in iron metabolism genes predict higher blood lead levels in young children. Environ Health Perspect 116(9):1261-1266. doi:10.1289/ehp.11233 PMID:18795173 PMCID:PMC2535632
  • Lampe BJ, Park S, Robins T, Mukherjee B, Litonjua A, Amarasiriwardena CJ, Weisskopf MG, Sparrow D, Hu H. 2008. Association between 24-hour urinary cadmium and pulmonary function among community-exposed men: the VA Normative Aging Study. Environ Health Perspect 116(9):1226-1230. doi:10.1289/ehp.11265 PMID:18795167 PMCID:PMC2535626
  • Park S, O'Neill MS, Vokonas PS, Sparrow D, Spiro, III A, Tucker KL, Suh H, Hu H, Schwartz J. 2008. Traffic-related particles are associated with elevated homocysteine: the VA normative aging study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 178(3):283-289. doi:10.1164/rccm.200708-1286OC PMID:18467508 PMCID:PMC2542426
  • Park S, O'Neill MS, Vokonas PS, Sparrow D, Wright RO, Coull BA, Nie H, Hu H, Schwartz J. 2008. Air pollution and heart rate variability: effect modification by chronic lead exposure. Epidemiology 19(1):111-120. doi:10.1097/EDE.0b013e31815c408a PMID:18091001 PMCID:PMC2671065
  • Rajan P, Kelsey KT, Schwartz J, Bellinger DC, Weuve J, Spiro, III A, Sparrow D, Smith TJ, Nie H, Weisskopf MG, Hu H, Wright RO. 2008. Interaction of the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase polymorphism and lead burden on cognitive function: the VA normative aging study. J Occup Environ Med 50(9):1053-1061. doi:10.1097/JOM.0b013e3181792463 PMID:18784554 PMCID:PMC3664949
  • Surkan PJ, Schnaas L, Wright RJ, Tellez-Rojo MM, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Hu H, Hernandez-Avila M, Bellinger DC, Schwartz J, Perroni E, Wright RO. 2008. Maternal self-esteem, exposure to lead, and child neurodevelopment. Neurotoxicology 29(2):278-285. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2007.11.006 PMID:18261800 PMCID:PMC2495770


  • Ettinger AS, Hu H, Hernandez-Avila M. 2007. Dietary calcium supplementation to lower blood lead levels in pregnancy and lactation. J Nutr Biochem 18(3):172-8. PMID:17296490
  • Hu H, Shine JP, Wright RO. 2007. The challenge posed to children's health by mixtures of toxic waste: the Tar Creek superfund site as a case-study. Pediatric Clinics of North America 54(1):155-75. PMID:17306689
  • Perlstein T, Weuve J, Schwartz J, Sparrow D, Wright RO, Litonjua A, Nie H, Hu H. 2007. Cumulative community-level lead exposure and pulse pressure: the normative aging study. Environ Health Perspect 115(12):1696-1700. doi:10.1289/ehp.10350 PMID:18087585 PMCID:PMC2137129
  • Schwartz BS, Hu H. 2007. Adult lead exposure: time for change. Environ Health Perspect 115(3):451-4. PMID:17431498
  • Schwartz J, Wright RO, Hu H. 2007. Lead levels and ischemic heart disease in a prospective study of middle-aged and elderly men: the VA normative aging study. Environ Health Perspect 115(6):871-5. PMID:17589593
  • Shih RA, Hu H, Weisskopf MG, Schwartz BS. 2007. Cumulative lead dose and cognitive function in adults: a review of studies that measured both blood lead and bone lead. Environ Health Perspect 115(3):483-92. PMID:17431502
  • Shih RA, Rothenberg SJ, Schwartz BS. 2007. The epidemiology of lead toxicity in adults: measuring dose and consideration of other methodologic issues. Environ Health Perspect 115(3):455-62. PMID:17431499
  • Weisskopf MG, Proctor SP, Wright RO, Schwartz J, Spiro, III A, Sparrow D, Nie H, Hu H. 2007. Cumulative lead exposure and cognitive performance among elderly men. Epidemiology 18(1):59-66. PMID:17130688


  • Hu H, Tellez-Rojo MM, Bellinger DC, Smith DR, Ettinger AS, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Schwartz J, Schnaas L, Mercado-Garcia A, Hernandez-Avila M. 2006. Fetal lead exposure at each stage of pregnancy as a predictor of infant mental development. Environ Health Perspect 114(11):1730-1735. PMID:17107860 PMCID:PMC1665421
  • Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Tellez-Rojo MM, Hernandez-Cadena L, Mercado-Garcia A, Smith D, Solano-Gonzalez M, Hernandez-Avila M, Hu H. 2006. Biological markers of fetal lead exposure at each stage of pregnancy. J Toxicol Environ Health A 69(19):1781-1796. doi:10.1080/15287390600630195 PMID:16905508
  • Park SK, Schwartz J, Weisskopf MG, Vokonas PS, Wright RO, Coull BA, Nie H, Hu H. 2006. Low-level lead exposure, metabolic syndrome, and heart rate variability: the VA Normative Aging Study. Environ Health Perspect 114(11):1718-24. PMID:17107858


  • Farias P, Echavarria M, Hernandez-Avila M, Villanueva C, Amarasiriwardena CJ, Hernandez L, Aro A, Hu H. 2005. Bone, blood and semen lead in men with environmental and moderate occupational exposure. Salud Publica Mexicana 15(1):21-31. PMID:16028333


  • Ettinger AS, Tellez-Rojo MM, Amarasiriwardena CJ, Bellinger DC, Peterson KE, Schwartz J, Hu H, Hernandez-Avila M. 2004. Effect of breast milk lead on infant blood lead levels at 1 month of age. Environ Health Perspect 112(14):1381-1385. PMID:15471729
  • Ettinger AS, Tellez-Rojo MM, Amarasiriwardena CJ, Gonzalez-Cossio T, Peterson KE, Aro A, Hu H, Hernandez-Avila M. 2004. Levels of lead in breast milk and their relation to maternal blood and bone lead levels at one month postpartum. Environ Health Perspect 112(8):926-931. PMID:15175184
  • Juarez-Perez CA, Aguilar-Madrid G, Smith DR, Lacasana-Navarro M, Tellez-Rojo MM, Piacitelli GM, Hu H, Hernandez-Avila M. 2004. Predictors of plasma lead among lithographic print shop workers in Mexico City. Am J Ind Med 46(3):245-252. PMID:15307123
  • Tellez-Rojo MM, Hernandez-Avila M, Smith DR, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Hernandez-Cadena L, Mercado-Garcia A, Aro A, Schwartz J, Hu H. 2004. Impact of bone lead and bone resorption on plasma and whole blood lead levels during pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol 160(7):668-678. doi:10.1093/aje/kwh271 PMID:15383411


  • Guerra-Tamayo JL, Hernandez-Cadena L, Tellez-Rojo MM, Mercado-Garcia A, Solano-Gonzalez M, Hernandez-Avila M, Hu H. 2003. Time to pregnancy and lead exposure. Salud Publica Mexicana 45:S189-S195Suppl.2. PMID:14750500
  • Hernandez-Avila M, Gonzalez-Cossio T, Hernandez-Avila JE, Romieu I, Peterson KE, Aro A, Palazuelos E, Hu H. 2003. Dietary calcium supplements to lower blood lead levels in lactating women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Epidemiology 14(2):206-212. doi:10.1097/01.EDE.0000038520.66094.34 PMID:12606887
  • Janakiraman V, Ettinger AS, Mercado-Garcia A, Hu H, Hernandez-Avila M. 2003. Calcium supplements and bone resorption in pregnancy - a randomized crossover trial. Am J Prev Med 24(3):260-264. PMID:12657345
  • Wright RO, Hu H, Silverman EK, Tsaih S, Schwartz J, Bellinger DC, Weiss ST, Palazuelos E, Hernandez-Avila M. 2003. Apolipoprotein E genotype predicts 24-month Bayley scales infant development score. Pediatric Research 54(6):819-825. PMID:12930912


  • Dykeman R, Aguilar-Madrid G, Smith TJ, Juarez-Perez CA, Piacitelli GM, Hu H, Hernandez-Avila M. 2002. Lead exposure in Mexican radiator repair workers. Am J Ind Med 41(3):179-187. doi:10.1002/ajim.10044 PMID:11920962
  • Gomaa A, Hu H, Bellinger DC, Schwartz J, Schnaas L, Gonzalez-Cossio T, Peterson KE, Aro A, Hernandez-Avila M. 2002. Maternal bone lead as an independent risk factor for fetal neurotoxicity: a prospective study. Pediatrics 110:110-118. PMID:12093955
  • Hernandez-Avila M, Peterson KE, Gonzalez-Cossio T, Sanin L, Aro A, Schnaas L, Hu H. 2002. Effect of maternal bone lead on length and head circumference of newborns and 1-month-old infants. Arch Environ Health 57(5):482-488. doi:10.1080/00039890209601441 PMID:12641193
  • Hu H. 2002. Progress in research on lead toxicity research: peeling the onion. Biomedicine 21(2&3):1-17.
  • Hu H, Hernandez-Avila M. 2002. Invited commentary: lead, bones, women, and pregnancy--the poison within?. Am J Epidemiol 156(12):1088-1091. PMID:12480652
  • Smith DR, Hernandez-Avila M, Tellez-Rojo MM, Mercado-Garcia A, Hu H. 2002. The relationship between lead in plasma and whole blood in women. Environ Health Perspect 110:263-268. PMID:11882477
  • Tellez-Rojo MM, Hernandez-Avila M, Gonzalez-Cossio T, Romieu I, Aro A, Palazuelos E, Schwartz J, Hu H. 2002. The impact of breastfeeding on the mobilization of lead from bone. Am J Epidemiol 155(5):420-428. PMID:11867353


  • Cheng YW, Schwartz J, Sparrow D, Aro A, Weiss ST, Hu H. 2001. Bone lead and blood lead levels in relation to baseline blood pressure and the prospective development of hypertension: The Normative Aging Study. Am J Epidemiol 153(2):164-171. PMID:11159162
  • Chuang H, Schwartz J, Gonzales-Cossio T, Lugo MC, Palazuelos E, Aro A, Hu H, Hernandez-Avila M. 2001. Interrelations of lead levels in bone, venous blood, and umbilical cord blood with exogenous lead exposure through maternal plasma lead in peripartum women. Environ Health Perspect 109(5):527-532. PMID:11401766
  • Potula V, Hegarty-Steck M, Hu H. 2001. Blood lead levels in relation to paint and dust lead levels: the lead-safe cambridge program. Am J Public Health 91:1973-1974. PMID:11726378
  • Sanin L, Gonzalez-Cossio T, Romieu I, Peterson KE, Ruiz S, Hernandez-Avila M, Hu H. 2001. Effect of maternal lead burden on infant weight and weight gain at one month of age among breastfed infants. Pediatrics 107(5):1016-1023. PMID:11331680
  • Tsaih S, Korrick SA, Schwartz J, Lee M, Amarasiriwardena CJ, Aro A, Sparrow D, Hu H. 2001. Influence of bone resorption on the mobilization of lead from bone among middle-aged and elderly men: the Normative Aging Study. Environ Health Perspect 109(10):995-999. PMID:11675263 PMCID:PMC1242074


  • Aro A, Amarasiriwardena CJ, Lee ML, Kim R, Hu H. 2000. Validation of K x-ray fluorescence bone lead measurements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in cadaver legs. Medical Physics 27:119-123. PMID:10659745
  • Brown MJ, Hu H, Gonzalez-Cossio T, Peterson KE, Sanin L, Fishbein E, Palazuelos E, Aro A, Schnaas L, Hernandez-Avila M. 2000. Determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in the early postpartum period. J Occup Environ Med 57:535-541. PMID:10896960
  • Hernandez-Avila M, Villalpando CG, Palazuelos E, Hu H, Villalpando ME, Martinez R. 2000. Determinants of blood lead levels across the menopausal transition. Arch Environ Health 55(5):355-360. doi:10.1080/00039890009604028 PMID:11063411
  • Shadick NA, Kim R, Weiss ST, Liang MH, Sparrow D, Hu H. 2000. The effect of low-level lead exposure on hyperuricemia and gout among middle-aged and elderly men: the normative aging study. Journal of Rheumatology 27(7):1708-1712. PMID:10914856
  • Vig EK, Hu H. 2000. Lead toxicity in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 48(11):1501-1506. PMID:11083332
  • Wu MT, Demple B, Bennett RA, Christiani DC, Fan R, Hu H. 2000. Individual variability in the zinc inducibility of metallothionein-IIA mRNA in human lymphocytes. J Toxicol Environ Health A 61(7):553-567. PMID:11127411


  • Aguilar-Madrid G, Piacitelli GM, Juarez-Perez CA, Vasquez-Gramiex JH, Hu H, Hernandez-Avila M. 1999. Occupational exposure to inorganic lead in a printing plant in Mexico City. Salud Publica Mexicana 41:42-54. PMID:10081333
  • Tsaih S, Lee ML, Amarasiriwardena CJ, Aro A, Sparrow D, Hu H. 1999. The independent contribution of bone and erythrocyte lead to urinary lead among middle-aged and Elderly men: The Normative Aging Study. Environ Health Perspect 107(5):391-396. PMID:10210695


  • Farias P, Hu H, Rubenstein E, Meneses-Gonzalez F, Fishbein E, Palazuelos E, Aro A, Hernandez-Avila M. 1998. Determinants of bone and blood lead levels among teenagers living in urban areas with high lead exposure. Environ Health Perspect 106:733-738. PMID:9799189
  • Gonzalez-Cossio T, Sanin L, Hernandez-Avila M, Rivera J, Hu H. 1998. Length and weight at birth: the role of maternal nutrition. Salud Publica Mexicana 40(2):119-126. PMID:9617192
  • Hernandez-Avila M, Smith DR, Meneses-Gonzalez F, Sanin L, Hu H. 1998. The influence of bone and blood lead on plasma lead levels in environmentally exposed adults. Environ Health Perspect 106(8):473-477. PMID:9681974


  • Gonzalez-Cossio T, Peterson KE, Sanin L, Fishbein E, Palazuelos E, Aro A, Hernandez-Avila M, Hu H. 1997. Decrease in birth weight in relation to maternal bone-lead burden. Pediatrics 100(5):856-862. doi:10.1542/peds.100.5.856 PMID:9346987


  • Hernandez-Avila M, Gonzalez-Cossio T, Palazuelos E, Romieu I, Aro A, Fishbein E, Hu H, Peterson KE. 1996. Dietary and environmental determinants of blood and bone lead levels in lactating postpartum women living in Mexico City. Environ Health Perspect 104(10):1076-1082. PMID:8930549
  • Hu H, Hashimoto D, Besser M. 1996. Levels of lead in blood and bone of women giving birth in a Boston hospital. Arch Environ Health 51:52-58. PMID:8629865


  • Gonzalez-Cossio T, Hernandez-Avila M, Romieu I, Palazuelos E, Aro A, Hu H. 1995. Determinants of lead levels in lactating women in Mexico City. In: Proceedings of the Federation of American Societies of Experimental Biology Annual Meeting.
  • Hu H, Aro A, Rotnitzky A. 1995. Bone lead measured by X-ray fluorescence: epidemiologic methods. Environ Health Perspect 103(supp.1):105-110. PMID:7621788
  • Hu H, Kotha S, Brennan T. 1995. The role of nutrition in mitigating environmental insults: policy and ethical issues. Environ Health Perspect 103(supp.6):185-190. PMID:8549471
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