Skip Navigation
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it’s official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.

Https

The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Internet Explorer is no longer a supported browser.

This website may not display properly with Internet Explorer. For the best experience, please use a more recent browser such as the latest versions of Google Chrome, Microsoft Edge, and/or Mozilla Firefox. Thank you.

Your Environment. Your Health.

Project Publications: University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill: Development and Application of Biomarkers of Exposure

Superfund Research Program

Development and Application of Biomarkers of Exposure

Project Leader: Stephen M. Rappaport (University of California-Berkeley)
Grant Number: P42ES005948
Funding Period: 1995 - 2011

Learn More About the Grantee

Visit the grantee's eNewsletter page Visit the grantee's Twitter page Visit the grantee's Video page

Publications

2016

  • Bassig BA, Zhang L, Vermeulen R, Tang X, Li G, Hu W, Guo W, Purdue MP, Yin S, Rappaport SM, Shen M, Ji Z, Qiu C, Ge Y, Hosgood H, Reiss B, Wu B, Xie Y, Li L, Yue F, Freeman LB, Blair AE, Hayes RB, Huang H, Smith MT, Rothman N, Lan Q. 2016. Comparison of hematological alterations and markers of B-cell activation in workers exposed to benzene, formaldehyde and trichloroethylene. Carcinogenesis 37(7):692-700. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgw053 PMID:27207665 PMCID:PMC4936387
  • Rappaport SM. 2016. Genetic factors are not the major causes of chronic diseases. PLoS One 11(4):e0154387. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0154387 PMID:27105432 PMCID:PMC4841510

2014

2011

  • Kang-Sickel JC, Butler MA, Frame L, Serdar B, Chao YE, Egeghy PP, Rappaport SM, Toennis CA, Li W, Borisova T, French JE, Nylander-French LA. 2011. The utility of naphthyl-keratin adducts as biomarkers for jet-fuel exposure. Biomarkers 16:590-599. doi:10.3109/1354750x.2011.611598 PMID:21961652 PMCID:PMC4174274
  • McHale CM, Zhang L, Lan Q, Vermeulen R, Li G, Hubbard AE, Porter KE, Thomas R, Portier CJ, Shen M, Rappaport SM, Yin S, Rothman N, Smith MT. 2011. Global gene expression profiling of a population exposed to a range of benzene levels. Environ Health Perspect 119:628-634. doi:10.1289/ehp.1002546 PMID:21147609 PMCID:PMC3094412
  • Zhang L, Lan Q, Guo W, Hubbard AE, Li G, Rappaport SM, McHale CM, Shen M, Vermeulen R, Yin S, Rothman N, Smith MT, Ji Z. 2011. Chromosome-wide aneuploidy study (CWAS) in workers exposed to an established leukemogen, benzene. Carcinogenesis 32:605-612. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgq286 PMID:21216845 PMCID:PMC3066415

2009

  • Lan Q, Zhang L, Shen M, Jo WJ, Vermeulen R, Li G, Vulpe CD, Lim S, Ren X, Rappaport SM, Berndt SI, Yeager M, Yuenger J, Hayes RB, Linet MS, Yin S, Chanock SJ, Smith MT, Rothman N. 2009. Large-scale evaluation of candidate genes identifies associations between DNA repair and genomic maintenance and development of benzene hematotoxicity. Carcinogenesis 30(1):50-58. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgn249 PMID:18978339 PMCID:PMC2639030
  • McHale CM, Zhang L, Lan Q, Li G, Hubbard AE, Forrest MS, Vermeulen R, Chen J, Shen M, Rappaport SM, Yin S, Smith MT, Rothman N. 2009. Changes in the peripheral blood transcriptome associated with occupational benzene exposure identified by cross-comparison on two microarray platforms. Genomics 93(4):343-349. doi:10.1016/j.ygeno.2008.12.006 PMID:19162166 PMCID:PMC2693268
  • Rappaport SM, Kim S, Lan Q, Vermeulen R, Waidyanatha S, Zhang L, Li G, Yin S, Hayes RB, Rothman N, Smith MT. 2009. Evidence that humans metabolize benzene via two pathways. Environ Health Perspect 117:946-952. doi:10.1289/ehp.0800510 PMID:19590688 PMCID:PMC2702411
  • Sobus JR, Waidyanatha S, McClean MD, Herrick RF, Smith TJ, Garshick E, Laden F, Hart JE, Zheng Y, Rappaport SM. 2009. Urinary naphthalene and phenanthrene as biomarkers of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Occup Environ Med 66(2):99-104. doi:10.1136/oem.2008.041418 PMID:19017700 PMCID:PMC2633650

2008

  • Sobus JR, Pleil JD, Madden CM, Funk WE, Hubbard HE, Rappaport SM. 2008. Identification of surrogate measures of diesel exhaust exposure in chamber study with human subjects. Environ Sci Technol 42:8822-8828. doi:10.1021/es800813v PMID:19192804
  • Waldyanatha S, Rappaport SM. 2008. Hemoglobin and albumin adducts of naphthalene-1,2-oxide, 1,2-naphthoqulnone and 1,4-naphthoquinone in Swiss Webster mice. Chem Biol Interact 172:105-114. PMID:18291356

2007

  • Kim S, Lan Q, Waidyanatha S, Chanock SJ, Johnson BA, Vermeulen R, Smith MT, Zhang L, Li G, Shen M, Yin S, Rothman N, Rappaport SM. 2007. Genetic polymorphisms and benzene metabolism in humans exposed to a wide range of air concentrations. Pharmacogenet Genomics 17(10):789-801. PMID:17885617
  • Lin Y, Vermeulen R, Tsai CH, Waidyanatha S, Lan Q, Rothman N, Smith MT, Zhang L, Shen M, Li G, Yin S, Kim S, Rappaport SM. 2007. Albumin adducts of electrophilic benzene metabolites in benzene-exposed and control workers. Environ Health Perspect 115(1):28-34. PMID:17366815

2006

  • Chao YE, Kupper LL, Serdar B, Egeghy PP, Rappaport SM, Nylander-French LA. 2006. Dermal exposure to jet fuel JP-8 significantly contributes to the production of urinary naphthols in fuel-cell maintenance workers. Environ Health Perspect 114(2):182-185. PMID:16451852 PMCID:PMC1367829
  • Kim S, Vermeulen R, Waidyanatha S, Johnson BA, Lan Q, Rothman N, Smith MT, Zhang L, Li G, Shen M, Yin S, Rappaport SM. 2006. Using urinary biomarkers to elucidate dose-related patterns of human benzene metabolism. Carcinogenesis 27(4):772-81. PMID:16339183
  • Kim S, Vermeulen R, Waidyanatha S, Johnson BA, Lan Q, Smith MT, Zhang L, Li G, Shen M, Yin S, Rothman N, Rappaport SM. 2006. Modeling human metabolism of benzene following occupational and environmental exposures. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15(11):2246-52. PMID:17119053
  • Lin Y, McKelvey W, Waidyanatha S, Rappaport SM. 2006. Variability of albumin adducts of 1,4-benzoquinone, a toxic metabolite of benzene, in human volunteers. Biomarkers 11(1):14-27. doi:10.1080/13547500500382975 PMID:16484134
  • Pleil JD, Funk WE, Rappaport SM. 2006. Residual indoor contamination from world trade center rubble fires as indicated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon profiles. Environ Sci Technol 40(4):1172-1177. PMID:16572771
  • Shen M, Lan Q, Zhang L, Chanock SJ, Li G, Vermeulen R, Rappaport SM, Guo W, Hayes RB, Linet MS, Yin S, Yeager M, Welch R, Forrest MS, Rothman N, Smith MT. 2006. Polymorphisms in genes involved in DNA double-strand break repair pathway and susceptibility to benzene-induced hematotoxicity. Carcinogenesis 27(10):2083-2089. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgl061 PMID:16728435
  • Vermeulen R, Lan Q, Li G, Rappaport SM, Kim S, van Wendel de Joode B, Shen M, Bohong X, Smith MT, Zhang L, Yin S, Rothman G. 2006. Assessment of dermal exposure to benzene and toluene in shoe manufacturing by activated carbon cloth patches. J Environ Monit 8(11):1143-8. PMID:17075621
  • Yokley K, Tran HT, Pekari K, Rappaport SM, Riihimaki V, Rothman N, Waidyanatha S, Schlosser PM. 2006. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling of benzene in humans: a Bayesian approach. Risk Anal 26(4):925-43. PMID:16948686

2005

  • Henderson AP, Barnes ML, Bleasdale C, Cameron R, Clegg W, Heath SL, Lindstrom AB, Rappaport SM, Waidyanatha S, Watson WP, Golding BT. 2005. Reactions of benzene oxide with thiols including glutathione. Chem Res Toxicol 18(2):265-270. doi:10.1021/tx049781y PMID:15720131
  • Lan Q, Zhang L, Hakim F, Shen M, Memon S, Li G, Vermeulen R, Smith MT, Rappaport SM, Hayes RB, Linet MS, Yin S, Rothman N, Rabkin CS. 2005. Lymphocyte toxicity and T cell receptor excision circles in workers exposed to benzene. Chem Biol Interact 153-154:111-115. PMID:15935806
  • Lan Q, Zhang L, Shen M, Smith MT, Li G, Vermeulen R, Rappaport SM, Forrest MS, Hayes RB, Linet MS, Dosemeci M, Alter BP, Weinberg RS, Yin S, Yeager M, Welch R, Waidyanatha S, Kim S, Chanock SJ, Rothman N. 2005. Polymorphisms in cytokine and cellular adhesion molecule genes and susceptibility to hematotoxicity among workers exposed to benzene. Cancer Res 65(20):9574-9581. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-1419 PMID:16230423
  • Rappaport SM, Waidyanatha S, Yeowell-O'Connell K, Rothman N, Smith MT, Zhang L, Qu Q, Shore R, Li G, Yin S. 2005. Protein adducts as biomarkers of human benzene metabolism. Chem Biol Interact 153-154:103-109. PMID:15935805
  • Waidyanatha S, Rappaport SM. 2005. Investigation of cysteinyl protein adducts of benzene diolepoxide. Chem Biol Interact 153-154:261-266. PMID:15935825
  • Wu R, Waidyanatha S, Henderson AP, Serdar B, Zheng Y, Rappaport SM. 2005. Determination of dihydroxynaphthalenes in human urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 826(1-2):206-213. doi:10.1016/j.jchromb.2005.08.022 PMID:16169295

2004

  • Lan Q, Zhang L, Li G, Vermeulen R, Weinberg RS, Dosemeci M, Rappaport SM, Shen M, Alter BP, Wu Y, Kopp W, Waidyanatha S, Rabkin CS, Guo W, Chanock SJ, Hayes RB, Linet MS, Kim S, Yin S, Rothman N, Smith MT. 2004. Hematotoxicity in workers exposed to low levels of benzene. Science 306(5702):1774-1776. doi:10.1126/science.1102443 PMID:15576619 PMCID:PMC1256034
  • Landrigan PJ, Lioy PJ, Thurston G, Berkowitz GS, Chen L, Chillrud SN, Gavett SH, Georgopoulos PG, Geyh AS, Levin SM, Perera F, Rappaport SM, Small C. 2004. Health and environmental consequences of the world trade center disaster. Environ Health Perspect 112(6):731-739. PMID:15121517
  • Pleil JD, Vette AF, Johnson BA, Rappaport SM. 2004. Air levels of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons after the World Trade Center disaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(32):11685-11688. PMID:15280534
  • Pleil JD, Vette AF, Johnson BA, Rappaport SM. 2004. Assaying particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from archived PM2.5 filters. J Chromatogr A 1033(1):9-17. PMID:15072286
  • Rappaport SM, Waidyanatha S, Serdar B. 2004. Naphthalene and its biomarkers as measures of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. J Environ Monit 6(5):413-416. PMID:15152308
  • Serdar B, Egeghy PP, Gibson RL, Rappaport SM. 2004. Dose-dependent production of urinary naphthols among workers exposed to jet fuel (JP-8). Environ Health Perspect 46(3):234-244. PMID:15307122
  • Vermeulen R, Li G, Lan Q, Dosemeci M, Rappaport SM, Bohong X, Smith MT, Zhang L, Hayes RB, Linet MS, Mu R, Wang L, Xu J, Yin S, Rothman N. 2004. Detailed exposure assessment for a molecular epidemiology study of benzene in two shoe factories in China. Ann Occup Hyg 48(2):105-116. PMID:14990432
  • Waidyanatha S, Rothman N, Li G, Smith MT, Yin S, Rappaport SM. 2004. Rapid determination of six urinary benzene metabolites in occupationally exposed and unexposed subjects. Anal Biochem 327(2):184-199. PMID:15051535
  • Waidyanatha S, Zheng Y, Serdar B, Rappaport SM. 2004. Albumin adducts of naphthalene metabolites as biomarkers of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13(1):117-124. PMID:14744742

2003

  • Egeghy PP, Hauf-Cabalo L, Gibson RL, Rappaport SM. 2003. Benzene and naphthalene in air and breath as indicators of exposure to jet fuel. Occup Environ Med 60(12):969-976. PMID:14634191
  • Serdar B, Egeghy PP, Waidyanatha S, Gibson RL, Rappaport SM. 2003. Urinary biomarkers of exposure to jet fuel (JP-8). Environ Health Perspect 111(14):1760-1764. PMID:14594628
  • Serdar B, Waidyanatha S, Zheng Y, Rappaport SM. 2003. Simultaneous determination of urinary 1- and 2-naphthols, 3- and 9-phenanthrols, and 1-pyrenol in coke oven workers. Biomarkers 8(20:93-109. PMID:12775495
  • Tsai CH, Lin P, Troester MA, Rappaport SM. 2003. Formation and removal of pentachlorophenol-derived protein adducts in rodent liver under acute, multiple, and chronic dosing regimens. Toxicol Sci 73(1):26-35. PMID:12700421
  • Waidyanatha S, Zheng Y, Rappaport SM. 2003. Determination of polypyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine of coke oven workers by headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chem Biol Interact 145(2):165-174. PMID:12686493

2002

  • Egeghy PP, Nylander-French LA, Gwin KK, Hertz-Picciotto I, Rappaport SM. 2002. Self-collected breath sampling for monitoring low-level benzene exposures among automobile mechanics. Ann Occup Hyg 46(5):489-500. PMID:12176763
  • Rappaport SM, Waidyanatha S, Qu Q, Shore R, Jin X, Cohen B, Chen L, Melikian AA, Li G, Yin S, Yan H, Xu B, Mu R, Li Y, Zhang X, Li K. 2002. Albumin adducts of benzene oxide and 1,4-benzoquinone as measures of human benzene metabolism. Cancer Res 62(5):1330-1337. PMID:11888901
  • Rappaport SM, Yeowell-O'Connell K, Smith MT, Dosemeci M, Hayes RB, Zhang L, Li G, Yin S, Rothman N. 2002. Non-linear production of benzene oxide-albumin adducts with human exposure to benzene. J Chromatogr A 778:367-374. PMID:12376141
  • Troester MA, Lindstrom AB, Waidyanatha S, Kupper LL, Rappaport SM. 2002. Stability of hemoglobin and albumin adducts of naphthalene oxide, 1,2-naphthoquinone, and 1,4-naphthoquinone. Toxicol Sci 68(2):314-321. PMID:12151627
  • Tsai CH, Lin P, Waidyanatha S, Rappaport SM. 2002. Fractionation of protein adducts in rats and mice dosed with[(14)C]pentachlorophenol. Arch Toxicol 76(11):628-633. PMID:12415425
  • Waidyanatha S, Troester MA, Lindstrom AB, Rappaport SM. 2002. Measurement of hemoglobin and albumin adducts of naphthalene-1,2-oxide, 1,2-naphthoquinone and 1,4-naphthoquinone after administration of naphthalene to F344 rats. Chem Biol Interact 141(3):189-210. PMID:12385719

2001

  • Taylor DJ, Kupper LL, Rappaport SM, Lyles RH. 2001. A mixture model for occupational exposure mean testing with a limit of detection. Biometrics 57(3):681-699. PMID:11550915
  • Troester MA, Kupper LL, Rappaport SM. 2001. Comparison of non-linear and linear models for estimating haemoglobin adduct stability. Biomarkers 6(4):251-261. PMID:23889277
  • Tsai CH, Lin P, Waidyanatha S, Rappaport SM. 2001. Characterization of metabolic activation of pentachlorophenol to quinones and semiquinones in rodent liver. Chem Biol Interact 134(1):55-71. PMID:11248222
  • Waidyanatha S, Rothman N, Fustinoni S, Smith MT, Hayes RB, Bechtold WE, Dosemeci M, Li G, Yin S, Rappaport SM. 2001. Urinary benzene as a biomarker of exposure among occupationally exposed and unexposed subjects. Carcinogenesis 22:279-286. PMID:11181449
  • Yeowell-O'Connell K, Rothman N, Waidyanatha S, Smith MT, Hayes RB, Li G, Bechtold WE, Dosemeci M, Zhang L, Yin S, Rappaport SM. 2001. Protein adducts of 1,4-benzoquinone and benzene oxide among smokers and nonsmokers exposed to benzene in China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 10:831-838. PMID:11489749

2000

  • Egeghy PP, Tornero-Velez R, Rappaport SM. 2000. Environmental and biological monitoring of benzene during self-service automobile refueling. Environ Health Perspect 108:1195-1202. PMID:11133401
  • Troester MA, Lindstrom AB, Waidyanatha S, Kupper LL, Rappaport SM. 2000. Stability of hemoglobin and albumin adducts of benzene oxide and 1,4-benzoquinone after administration of benzene to F344 rats. Toxicol Sci 54:88-94. PMID:10746935

1999

  • Lin P, Waidyanatha S, Pollack GM, Swenberg JA, Rappaport SM. 1999. Dose-specific production of chlorinated quinone and semiquinone adducts in rodent livers following administration of pentachlorophenol. Toxicol Sci 47(1):126-133. PMID:10048161
  • Lindstrom AB, Yeowell-O'Connell K, Waidyanatha S, McDonald TA, Rappaport SM. 1999. Investigation of benzene oxide in bone marrow and other tissues of F344 rats following metabolism of benzene in vitro and in vivo. Chem Biol Interact 122(1):41-58. PMID:10475614
  • Rappaport SM, Yeowell-O'Connell K. 1999. Protein adducts as dosimeters of human exposure to styrene, styrene-7, 8-oxide, and benzene. Toxicol Lett 108:117-126. PMID:10511253

1998

  • Lindstrom AB, Yeowell-O'Connell K, Waidyanatha S, McDonald TA, Golding BT, Rappaport SM. 1998. Formation of hemoglobin and albumin adducts of benzene oxide in mouse, rat, and human blood. Chem Res Toxicol 11:302-310. PMID:9548800
  • Waidyanatha S, Yeowell-O'Connell K, Rappaport SM. 1998. A new assay for albumin and hemoglobin adducts of 1,2- and 1,4-benzoquinones. Chem Biol Interact 115:117-139. PMID:9826945
  • Yeowell-O'Connell K, Rothman N, Smith MT, Hayes RB, Li G, Waidyanatha S, Dosemeci M, Zhang L, Yin S, Titenko-Holland N, Rappaport SM. 1998. Hemoglobin and albumin adducts of benzene oxide among workers exposed to high levels of benzene. Carcinogenesis 19(9):1565-1571. PMID:9771926

1997

  • Lin P, Waidyanatha S, Pollack GM, Rappaport SM. 1997. Dosimetry of chlorinated quinone metabolites of pentachlorophenol in the livers of rats and mice based upon measurement of protein adducts. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 145(2):399-408. PMID:9266814
  • Lindstrom AB, Yeowell-O'Connell K, Waidyanatha S, Golding BT, Tornero-Velez R, Rappaport SM. 1997. Measurement of benzene oxide in the blood of rats following administration of benzene. Carcinogenesis 18:1637-1641. PMID:9276641

1996

  • Lin P, Waidyanatha S, Rappaport SM. 1996. Investigation of liver binding of pentachlorophenol based upon measurement of protein adducts. Biomarkers 1:232-243. PMID:23888990
  • Rappaport SM, McDonald TA, Yeowell-O'Connell K. 1996. The use of protein adducts to investigate the disposition of reactive metabolites of benzene. Environ Health Perspect 104(S6):1235-1237. PMID:9118898
  • Waidyanatha S, Lin P, Rappaport SM. 1996. Characterization of chlorinated adducts of hemoglobin and albumin following administration of pentachlorophenol to rats. Chem Res Toxicol 9(3):647-653. PMID:8728511
  • Yeowell-O'Connell K, McDonald TA, Rappaport SM. 1996. Analysis of hemoglobin adducts of benzene oxide by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anal Biochem 237:49-55. PMID:8660536

1995

  • Brandt-Rauf PW, Marion M, De Vivo I. 1995. Mutant p21 protein as a biomarker of chemical carcinogenesis in humans. In: Biomarkers and Occupational Health: Progress and Perspectives. Joseph Henry Press, Washington, DC. pp.163-173.
  • Rappaport SM, Symanski E, Yager JW, Kupper LL. 1995. The relationship between environmental monitoring and biological markers in exposure assessment. Environ Health Perspect 103(supp.3):49-53. PMID:7635112
Back
to Top