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Your Environment. Your Health.

Program Publications: University of Rhode Island: Sources, Transport, Exposure and Effects of PFASs (STEEP)

Superfund Research Program

Sources, Transport, Exposure and Effects of PFASs (STEEP)

Center Director: Rainer Lohmann
Grant Number: P42ES027706
Funding Period: 2017-2022
View this project in the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT)

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  • Sunderland EM, Wagner CC. The global chemical experiment. In: Earth 2020: An insider's guide to a rapidly changing planet.


  • Wilkinson BP, Robuck AR, Lohmann R, Pickard HM, Jodice PG. 2022. Urban proximity while breeding is not a predictor of perfluoroalkyl substance contamination in the eggs of brown pelicans. Sci Total Environ 803(11):PMID:34525704


  • Alesio J, Slitt AL, Bothun GD. 2021. Critical new insights into the binding of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) to albumin protein. Chemosphere 287:131979. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131979 PMID:34450368 (ahead of print)
  • Amaeze O, Eng H, Horlbogen L, Varma MV, Slitt AL. 2021. Cytochrome P450 enzyme inhibition and herb-drug interaction potential of medicinal plant extracts used for management of diabetes in Nigeria. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 46(3):437-450. doi:10.1007/s13318-021-00685-1 PMID:33844145
  • Basaly V, Hill J, Bihaqi SW, Marques E, Slitt AL, Zawia NH. 2021. Developmental perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) exposure as a potential risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease in CD-1 mice and SH-SY5Y cells. Neurotoxicology 86:26-36. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2021.06.008 PMID:34224775 (ahead of print)
  • Becanova J, Saleeba Z, Stone A, Robuck AR, Hurt RH, Lohmann R. 2021. A graphene-based hydrogel monolith with tailored surface chemistry for PFAS passive sampling. Environ Sci Nano 14:doi:10.1039/D1EN00517K
  • Birukov A, Andersen LB, Andersen M, Nielsen JH, Nielsen F, Kyhl HB, Jorgensen JS, Grandjean P, Dechend R, Jensen TK. 2021. Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances and blood pressure in pregnancy among 1436 women from the Odense Child Cohort. Environ Int 151:106442. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2021.106442 PMID:33610053
  • Blomberg AJ, Shih Y, Messerlian C, Jorgensen LH, Weihe P, Grandjean P. 2021. Early-life associations between per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances and serum lipids in a longitudinal birth cohort. Environ Res 200:111400. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2021.111400 PMID:34081971 PMCID:PMC8403652
  • Cousins IT, DeWitt JC, Gluge J, Goldenman G, Herzke D, Lohmann R, Miller M, Ng CA, Patton S, Scheringer M, Trier X, Wang Z. 2021. Finding essentiality feasible: Common questions and misinterpretations concerning the 'essential-use' concept. Environ Sci Process Impacts doi:10.1039/d1em00180a PMID:34190275 (ahead of print)
  • Dalsager L, Christensen N, Halekoh U, Timmermann CA, Nielsen F, Kyhl HB, Husby S, Grandjean P, Jensen TK, Andersen HR. 2021. Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances during fetal life and hospitalization for infectious disease in childhood: A study among 1,503 children from the Odense Child Cohort. Environ Int 149:106395. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2021.106395 PMID:33508532
  • Dalsager L, Jensen TK, Nielsen F, Grandjean P, Bilenberg N, Andersen HR. 2021. No association between maternal and child PFAS concentrations and repeated measures of ADHD symptoms at age 21/2 and 5 years in children from the Odense Child Cohort. Neurotoxicol Teratol 88:PMID:34563660
  • Etzel RA, Grandjean P, Ozonoff DM. 2021. Environmental epidemiology in a crossfire. Environmental Health 20(1):91. doi:10.1186/s12940-021-00776-1 PMID:34412648 PMCID:PMC8375458
  • Fedorenko M, Alesio J, Fedorenko A, Slitt AL, Bothun GD. 2021. Dominant entropic binding of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) to albumin protein revealed by 19 F NMR. Chemosphere 263(9):doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128083 PMID:33297081
  • Gardener H, Sun Q, Grandjean P. 2021. PFAS concentration during pregnancy in relation to cardiometabolic health and birth outcomes. Environ Res 192:110287. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2020.110287 PMID:33038367 PMCID:PMC7736328
  • Hamilton MC, Heintz MM, Pfohl M, Marques E, Ford L, Slitt AL, Baldwin WS. 2021. Increased toxicity and retention of perflourooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in humanized CYP2B6-Transgenic mice compared to Cyp2b-null mice is relieved by a high-fat diet (HFD). Food Chem Toxicol 152:112175. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2021.112175 PMID:33838175 PMCID:PMC8154739
  • Hill NI, Becanova J, Lohmann R. 2021. A sensitive method for the detection of legacy and emerging per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) in dairy milk. Anal Bioanal Chem doi:10.1007/s00216-021-03575-2 PMID:34355253 (ahead of print)
  • Marques E, Agudelo J, Kaye EM, Modaresi SM, Pfohl M, Becanova J, Wei W, Polunas M, Goedken M, Slitt AL. 2021. The role of maternal high fat diet on mouse pup metabolic endpoints following perinatal PFAS and PFAS mixture exposure. Toxicology 462(15):152921. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2021.152921 PMID:34464680 PMCID:PMC8554779
  • Morales-McDevitt ME, Becanova J, Blum A, Bruton TA, Vojta S, Woodward M, Lohmann R. 2021. The air that we breathe: Neutral and volatile PFAS in indoor air. Environ Sci Technol Lett 8:897-902. doi:10.1021/acs.estlett.1c00481
  • Ng CA, Cousins IT, DeWitt JC, Gluge J, Goldenman G, Herzke D, Lohmann R, Miller M, Patton S, Scheringer M, Trier X, Wang Z. 2021. Addressing urgent questions for PFAS in the 21st century. Environ Sci Technol 55(19):12755-12765. doi:10.1021/acs.est.1c03386 PMID:34519210 PMCID:PMC8590733
  • Pfohl M, DaSilva NA, Marques E, Agudelo J, Liu C, Goedken M, Slitt AL, Seeram NP, Ma H. 2021. Hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of a standardized pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit extract in high fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice. Int J Food Sci Nutr 72(4):499-510. doi:10.1080/09637486.2020.1849041 PMID:33203257
  • Pfohl M, Marques E, Auclair A, Barlock BJ, Jamwal R, Goedken M, Akhlaghi F, Slitt AL. 2021. An 'omics approach to unraveling the paradoxical effect of diet on perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA)-induced hepatic steatosis. Toxicol Sci 180:277-294. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfaa172 PMID:33483757 PMCID:PMC8041463
  • Robuck AR, McCord JP, Strynar M, Cantwell MG, Wiley DN, Lohmann R. 2021. Tissue-specific distribution of legacy and novel per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in juvenile seabirds. Environ Sci Technol Lett 8:
  • Ruyle BJ, Pickard HM, LeBlanc DR, Tokranov AK, Thackray CP, Hu XC, Vecitis CD, Sunderland EM. 2021. Isolating the AFFF signature in coastal watersheds using oxidizable PFAS precursors and unexplained organofluorine. Environ Sci Technol 55(6):3686-3695. doi:10.1021/acs.est.0c07296 PMID:33667081
  • Ruyle BJ, Thackray CP, McCord JP, Strynar M, Mauge-Lewis KA, Fenton SE, Sunderland EM. 2021. Reconstructing the composition of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in contemporary aqueous film-forming foams. Environ Sci Technol Lett 8:59-65. doi:10.1021/acs.estlett.0c00798 PMID:33628855 PMCID:PMC7898139
  • Salter DM, Wei W, Nahar PP, Marques E, Slitt AL. 2021. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) thwarts the beneficial effects of calorie restriction and Metformin. Toxicol Sci doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfab043 PMID:33844015 (ahead of print)
  • Shih Y, Blomberg AJ, Bind M, Holm D, Nielsen F, Heilmann C, Weihe P, Grandjean P. 2021. Serum vaccine antibody concentrations in adults exposed to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances: A birth cohort in the Faroe Islands. J Immunotoxicol 18(1):85-92. PMID:34143710 (ahead of print)
  • Shih Y, Blomberg AJ, Jorgensen LH, Weihe P, Grandjean P. 2021. Early-life exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances in relation to serum adipokines in a longitudinal birth cohort. Environ Res 204(7):111905. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2021.111905 PMID:34419464
  • Valvi D, Hojlund K, Coull BA, Nielsen F, Weihe P, Grandjean P. 2021. Life-course exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances in relation to markers of glucose homeostasis in early adulthood. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 106(8):2495-2504. doi:10.1210/clinem/dgab267 PMID:33890111 PMCID:PMC8277200
  • Wu Q, Coumoul X, Grandjean P, Barouki R, Audouze K. 2021. Endocrine disrupting chemicals and COVID-19 relationships: A computational systems biology approach. Environ Int 157:doi:10.1016/j.envint.2020.106232 PMID:33223326 PMCID:PMC7831776
  • Young AS, Sparer-Fine EH, Pickard HM, Sunderland EM, Peaslee GF, Allen JG. 2021. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and total fluorine in fire station dust. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol doi:10.1038/s41370-021-00288-7 PMID:33542478 (ahead of print)


  • Cousins IT, DeWitt JC, Gluge J, Goldenman G, Herzke D, Lohmann R, Miller M, Ng CA, Scheringer M, Vierke L, Wang Z. 2020. Strategies for grouping per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) to protect human and environmental health. Environ Sci Process Impacts 22:1444-1460. doi:10.1039/D0EM00147C PMID:32495786
  • Cousins IT, DeWitt JC, Gluge J, Goldenman G, Herzke D, Lohmann R, Ng CA, Scheringer M, Wang Z. 2020. The high persistence of PFAS is sufficient for their management as a chemical class. Environ Sci Process Impacts doi:10.1039/d0em00355g PMID:33230514
  • De Silva AO, Armitage JM, Bruton TA, Dassuncao C, Heiger-Bernays WJ, Hu XC, Karrman A, Kelly B, Ng CA, Robuck AR, Sun M, Webster TF, Sunderland EM. 2020. PFAS exposure pathways for humans and wildlife: A synthesis of current knowledge and key gaps in understanding. Environ Toxicol Chem doi:10.1002/etc.4935 PMID:33201517 PMCID:PMC7906948
  • Gluge J, Scheringer M, Cousins IT, Goldenman G, Herzke D, Lohmann R, DeWitt JC, Ng CA, Trier X, Wang Z. 2020. An overview of the uses of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Environ Sci Process Impacts 22:2345-2373. doi:10.1039/d0em00291g PMID:33125022 PMCID:PMC7784712
  • Grandjean P, Timmermann CA, Kruse M, Nielsen F, Vinholt PJ, Boding L, Heilmann C, Molbak K. 2020. Severity of COVID-19 at elevated exposure to perfluorinated alkylates. PLoS One 15:doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0244815 PMID:33382826
  • Jensen RC, Andersen M, Larsen PV, Glintborg D, Dalgard C, Timmermann CA, Nielsen F, Sandberg MB, Andersen HR, Christesen HT, Grandjean P, Jensen TK. 2020. Prenatal exposures to perfluoroalkyl acids and associations with markers of adiposity and plasma lipids in infancy: An Odense Child Cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 128(7):77001. doi:10.1289/EHP5184 PMID:32628516 PMCID:PMC7338787
  • Joerss H, Xie Z, Wagner CC, von Appen W, Sunderland EM, Ebinghaus R. 2020. Transport of legacy perfluoroalkyl substances and the replacement compound HFPO-DA through the Atlantic gateway to the Arctic Ocean - is the Arctic a sink or a source?. Environ Sci Technol 54(16):9958-9967. doi:10.1021/acs.est.0c00228 PMID:32806910
  • Kwiatkowski C, Andrews DQ, Birnbaum LS, Bruton TA, DeWitt JC, Knappe D, Maffini MV, Miller M, Pelch KE, Reade A, Soehl A, Trier X, Venier M, Wagner CC, Wang Z, Blum A. 2020. Scientific basis for managing PFAS as a chemical class. Environ Sci Technol Lett 7:532-543. doi:10.1021/acs.estlett.0c00255
  • Landrigan PJ, Stegeman JJ, Fleming LE, Allemand D, Anderson DM, Backer L, Brucker-Davis F, Chevalier N, Corra L, Czerucka D, Bottein MD, Demeneix B, Depledge MH, Deheyn DD, Dorman CJ, Fenichel P, Fisher S, Gaill F, Galgani F, Gaze WH, Giuliano L, Grandjean P, Hahn ME, Hamdoun A, Hess P, Judson B, Laborde A, McGlade J, Mu J, Mustapha A, Neira M, Noble RT, Pedrotti ML, Reddy C, Rocklov J, Scharler UM, Shanmugam H, Taghian G, van de Water JA, Vezzulli L, Weihe P, Zeka A, Raps H, Rampal P. 2020. Human health and ocean pollution. Ann Glob Health 86:64. doi:10.5334/aogh.2831 PMID:33354517 PMCID:PMC7731724
  • Liu G, Zhang B, Hu Y, Rood J, Liang L, Qi L, Bray GA, DeJonge L, Coull BA, Grandjean P, Furtado JD, Sun Q. 2020. Associations of perfluoroalkyl substances with blood lipids and apolipoproteins in lipoprotein subspecies: The POUNDS-lost study. Environmental Health 19:doi:10.1186/s12940-020-0561-8 PMID:31931806 PMCID:PMC6958662
  • Lohmann R, Cousins IT, DeWitt JC, Gluge J, Goldenman G, Herzke D, Lindstrom AB, Miller M, Ng CA, Patton S, Scheringer M, Trier X, Wang Z. 2020. Are fluoropolymers really of low concern for human and environmental health and separate from other PFAS?. Environ Sci Technol 54(20):12820-12828. doi:10.1021/acs.est.0c03244 PMID:33043667 PMCID:PMC7700770
  • Marques E, Pfohl M, Auclair A, Jamwal R, Barlock BJ, Sammoura FM, Goedken M, Akhlaghi F, Slitt AL. 2020. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) administration shifts the hepatic proteome and augments dietary outcomes related to hepatic steatosis in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 408:doi:10.1016/j.taap.2020.115250 PMID:32979393
  • Paragot N, Becanova J, Karaskova P, Prokes R, Klanova J, Lammel G, Degrendele C. 2020. Multi-year atmospheric concentrations of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) at a background site in central Europe. Environ Pollut 265:8. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114851 PMID:32474357
  • Pfohl M, Ingram L, Marques E, Auclair A, Barlock BJ, Jamwal R, Anderson D, Cummings BS, Slitt AL. 2020. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid alter the blood lipidome and the hepatic proteome in a murine model of diet-induced obesity. Toxicol Sci 178:311-324. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfaa148 PMID:32991729 PMCID:PMC7751193
  • Robuck AR, Cantwell MG, McCord JP, Addison LM, Pfohl M, Strynar M, McKinney R, Katz D, Wiley DN, Lohmann R. 2020. Legacy and novel per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in juvenile seabirds from the U.S. Atlantic Coast. Environ Sci Technol 54(20):12938-12948. doi:10.1021/acs.est.0c01951 PMID:32894676
  • Timmermann CA, Jensen KJ, Nielsen F, Budtz-Jorgensen E, van der Klis F, Benn CS, Grandjean P, Fisker AB. 2020. Serum Perfluoroalkyl Substances, Vaccine Responses, and Morbidity in a Cohort of Guinea-Bissau Children. Environ Health Perspect 128:doi:10.1289/ehp6517 PMID:32772733 PMCID:PMC7416537
  • Waterfield G, Rogers M, Grandjean P, Auffhammer M, Sunding D. 2020. Reducing exposure to high levels of perfluorinated compounds in drinking water improves reproductive outcomes: Evidence from an intervention in Minnesota. Environ Health 19(1):42. doi:10.1186/s12940-020-00591-0 PMID:32321520 PMCID:PMC7178962


  • Ammitzboll C, Bornsen L, Petersen ER, Oturai AB, Sondergaard HB, Grandjean P, Sellebjerg F. 2019. Perfluorinated substances, risk factors for multiple sclerosis and cellular immune activation. J Neuroimmunol 330:90-95. doi:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2019.03.002 PMID:30852181 PMCID:PMC6461219
  • Cordner A, De La Rosa VY, Schaider LA, Rudel RA, Richter L, Brown P. 2019. Guideline levels for PFOA and PFOS in drinking water: the role of scientific uncertainty, risk assessment decisions, and social factors. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 29:157-171. doi:10.1038/s41370-018-0099-9 PMID:30622333 PMCID:PMC6455940
  • Cousins IT, Goldenman G, Herzke D, Lohmann R, Miller M, Ng CA, Patton S, Scheringer M, Trier X, Vierke L, Wang Z, DeWitt JC. 2019. The concept of essential use for determining when uses of PFASs can be phased out. Environ Sci Process Impacts 21:1803-1815. doi:10.1039/c9em00163h PMID:31204421 PMCID:PMC6992415
  • Dassuncao C, Pickard HM, Pfohl M, Tokranov AK, Li M, Mikkelsen B, Slitt AL, Sunderland EM. 2019. Phospholipid levels predict the tissue distribution of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in a marine mammal. Environ Sci Technol Lett 6(3):119-125. doi:10.1021/acs.estlett.9b00031
  • DeWitt JC, Blossom SJ, Schaider L. 2019. Exposure to per-fluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances leads to immunotoxicity: epidemiological and toxicological evidence. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 29:148-156. doi:10.1038/s41370-018-0097-y PMID:30482935 PMCID:PMC6380927
  • Eryasa B, Grandjean P, Nielsen F, Valvi D, Zmirou-Navier D, Sunderland EM, Weihe P, Oulhote Y. 2019. Physico-chemical properties and gestational diabetes predict transplacental transfer and partitioning of perfluoroalkyl substances. Environ Int 130:doi:10.1016/j.envint.2019.05.068 PMID:31200157 PMCID:PMC7029428
  • Grandjean P. 2019. Developmental fluoride neurotoxicity: An updated review. Environmental Health 18:doi:10.1186/s12940-019-0551-x PMID:31856837 PMCID:PMC6923889
  • Grandjean P, Abdennebi-Najar L, Barouki R, Cranor CF, Etzel RA, Gee D, Heindel J, Hougaard KS, Hunt P, Nawrot T, Prins GS, Ritz B, Soffritti M, Sunyer J, Weihe P. 2019. Timescales of developmental toxicity impacting on research and needs for intervention. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 125:70-80. doi:10.1111/bcpt.13162 PMID:30387920 PMCID:PMC6497561
  • Hu XC, Tokranov AK, Liddie J, Zhang X, Grandjean P, Hart JE, Laden F, Sun Q, Yeung LW, Sunderland EM. 2019. Tap water contributions to plasma concentrations of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in a nationwide prospective cohort of U.S. women. Environ Health Perspect doi:10.1289/EHP4093 PMID:31170009 PMCID:PMC6792361
  • Khairy M, Noonan GO, Lohmann R. 2019. Uptake of hydrophobic organic compounds, including organochlorine pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluoroalkyl acids in fish and blue crabs of the lower Passaic River, New Jersey, USA. Environ Toxicol Chem 38(4):872-882. doi:10.1002/etc.4354 PMID:30614049 PMCID:PMC6475076
  • Lim X. 2019. Tainted water: the scientists tracing thousands of fluorinated chemicals in our environment. Nature 566:26-29. doi:10.1038/d41586-019-00441-1 PMID:30728524
  • Shaffer RM, Sellers SP, Baker MG, de Buen Kalman R, Frostad J, Suter MK, Anenberg SC, Balbus J, Basu N, Bellinger DC, Birnbaum LS, Brauer M, Cohen A, Ebi KL, Fuller R, Grandjean P, Hess JJ, Kogevinas M, Kumar P, Landrigan PJ, Lanphear BP, London SJ, Rooney AA, Stanaway JD, Trasande L, Walker K, Hu H. 2019. Improving and expanding estimates of the global burden of disease due to environmental health risk factors. Environ Health Perspect 127:doi:10.1289/EHP5496 PMID:31626566 PMCID:PMC6867191
  • Shelly C, Grandjean P, Oulhote Y, Plomgaard P, Frikke-Schmidt R, Nielsen F, Zmirou-Navier D, Weihe P, Valvi D. 2019. Early life exposures to perfluoroalkyl substances in relation to adipokine hormone levels at birth and during childhood. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 5338-48. doi:10.1210/jc.2019-00385 PMID:31216000 PMCID:PMC6773461 (ahead of print)
  • Sunderland EM, Hu XC, Dassuncao C, Tokranov AK, Wagner CC, Allen JG. 2019. A review of the pathways of human exposure to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and present understanding of health effects. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 29:131-147. doi:10.1038/s41370-018-0094-1 PMID:30470793 PMCID:PMC6380916
  • Susmann HP, Schaider L, Rodgers KM, Rudel RA. 2019. Dietary habits related to food packaging and population exposure to PFASs. Environ Health Perspect 127:doi:10.1289/EHP4092 PMID:31596611 PMCID:PMC6867167
  • Tokranov AK, Nishizawa N, Amadei CA, Zenobio JE, Pickard HM, Allen JG, Vecitis CD, Sunderland EM. 2019. How do we measure poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) at the surface of consumer products?. Environ Sci Technol Lett 6(1):38-43. doi:10.1021/acs.estlett.8b00600
  • Ugai T, Ito H, Oze I, Saito E, Rahman S, Boffetta P, Gupta PC, Sawada N, Tamakoshi A, Shu X, Koh W, Gao Y, Sadakane A, Tsuji I, Park SK, Nagata C, You S, Pednekar MS, Tsugane S, Cai H, Yuan J, Xiang Y, Ozasa K, Tomata Y, Kanemura S, Sugawara Y, Wada K, Chen C, Yoo K, Chia K, Ahsan H, Zheng W, Inoue M, Kang D, Potter JD, Matsuo K. 2019. Association of BMI, Smoking, and Alcohol with Multiple Myeloma Mortality in Asians: A Pooled Analysis of More than 800,000 Participants in the Asia Cohort Consortium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 28:1861-1867. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.Epi-19-0389 PMID:31399476
  • Xiao C, Grandjean P, Valvi D, Nielson F, Jensen TK, Weihe P, Oulhote Y. 2019. Associations of Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances With Thyroid Hormone Concentrations and Birth Size. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 105:doi:10.1210/clinem/dgz147
  • Zhang X, Lohmann R, Sunderland EM. 2019. Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in seawater and plankton from the Northwestern Atlantic Margin. Environ Sci Technol 53:12348-12356. doi:10.1021/acs.est.9b03230 PMID:31565932 PMCID:PMC6992416


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