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Program Publications: North Carolina State University: Center for Environmental and Health Effects of PFAS

Superfund Research Program

Center for Environmental and Health Effects of PFAS

Center Director: Carolyn J. Mattingly
Grant Number: P42ES031009
Funding Period: 2020-2025
View this project in the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT)

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  • Gentry E, Collins S, Panitchpakdi M, Belda-Ferre P, Stewart AK, Carrillo Terrazas M, Lu H, Zuffa S, Yan T, Avila-Pacheco J, Plichta D, Aron A, Wang M, Jarmusch A, Hao F, Syrkin-Nikolau M, Vlamakis H, Ananthakrishnan AN, Boland BS, Hemperly A, Vande Casteele N, Gonzalez FJ, Clish C, Xavier R, Chu H, Baker ES, Patterson A, Knight R, Siegel D, Dorrestein PC. 2024. Reverse metabolomics for the discovery of chemical structures from humans. Nature 626(7998):419-426. doi:10.1038/s41586-023-06906-8 PMID:38052229
  • Hopkins Z, Knappe D. 2024. Predicting per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances removal in pilot-scale granular activated carbon adsorbers from rapid small-scale column tests. AWWA Water Sci 6(2):doi:10.1002/aws2.1369
  • Kotlarz N, Guillette T, Critchley C, Collier D, Lea C, McCord JP, Strynar M, Cuffney M, Hopkins Z, Knappe D, Hoppin JA. 2024. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl ether acids in well water and blood serum from private well users residing by a fluorochemical facility near Fayetteville, North Carolina. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 34(1):97-107. doi:10.1038/s41370-023-00626-x PMID:38195989 PMCID:10976930
  • Kotlarz N, McCord JP, Wiecha N, Weed RA, Cuffney M, Enders J, Strynar M, Knappe D, Reich B, Hoppin JA. 2024. Measurement of hydro-EVE and 6:2 FTS in blood from Wilmington, North Carolina, residents, 2017-2018. Environ Health Perspect 132(2):27702. doi:10.1289/ehp14503 PMID:38306194 PMCID:10836582
  • Kotlarz N, McCord JP, Wiecha N, Weed RA, Cuffney M, Enders J, Strynar M, Knappe D, Reich B, Hoppin JA. 2024. Reanalysis of PFO5DoA levels in blood from Wilmington, North Carolina, residents, 2017-2018. Environ Health Perspect 132(2):27701. doi:10.1289/ehp13339 PMID:38306196 PMCID:10836584
  • Odenkirk MT, Zheng X, Kyle JE, Stratton KG, Nicora CD, Bloodsworth KJ, Mclean C, Masters C, Monroe ME, Doecke J, Smith RD, Burnum-Johnson KE, Roberts BR, Baker ES. 2024. Deciphering ApoE genotype-driven proteomic and lipidomic alterations in Alzheimer's disease across distinct brain regions. J Proteome Res doi:10.1021/acs.jproteome.3c00604 PMID:38236019


  • Chappel JR, King ME, Fleming J, Eberlin LS, Reif DM, Baker ES. 2023. Aggregated molecular phenotype scores: Enhancing assessment and visualization of mass spectrometry imaging data for tissue-based diagnostics. Anal Chem 95(34):12913-12922. doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.3c02389 PMID:37579019
  • Chappel JR, Kirkwood-Donelson KI, Reif DM, Baker ES. 2023. From big data to big insights: statistical and bioinformatic approaches for exploring the lipidome. Anal Bioanal Chem doi:10.1007/s00216-023-04991-2 PMID:37875675
  • Cuffney M, Wilkie AA, Kotlarz N, Knappe D, Lea CS, Collier D, DeWitt JC, Hoppin JA. 2023. Factors associated with per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) serum concentrations in residents of New Hanover County, North Carolina: The GenX exposure study. Environ Res 237:117020. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2023.117020 PMID:37673120
  • Efromson J, Ferrero G, Begue A, Doman TJ, Dugo C, Barker A, Saliu V, Reamey P, Kim K, Harfouche M, Yoder J. 2023. Automated, high-throughput quantification of EGFP-expressing neutrophils in zebrafish by machine learning and a highly-parallelized microscope. PLoS One 18(12):e0295711. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0295711 PMID:38060605 PMCID:PMC10703246
  • Foley MH, Walker ME, Stewart AK, O'Flaherty S, Gentry E, Patel S, Beaty VV, Allen G, Pan M, Simpson JB, Perkins C, Vanhoy ME, Dougherty MK, McGill SK, Gulati AS, Dorrestein PC, Baker ES, Redinbo MR, Barrangou R, Theriot CM. 2023. Bile salt hydrolases shape the bile acid landscape and restrict clostridioides difficile growth in the murine gut. Nat Microbiol doi:10.1038/s41564-023-01337-7 PMID:36914755 PMCID:PMC10066039
  • Kirkwood-Donelson KI, Dodds J, Schnetzer A, Hall N, Baker ES. 2023. Uncovering per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) with nontargeted ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry analyses. Sci Adv 9(43):eadj7048. doi:10.1126/sciadv.adj7048 PMID:37878714 PMCID:PMC10599621
  • Muncke J, Andersson A, Backhaus T, Belcher SM, Boucher JM, Almroth BC, Collins TJ, Geueke B, Groh K, Heindel JJ, von Hippel FA, Legler J, Maffini MV, Martin OV, Myers JP, Nadal A, Nerin C, Soto AM, Trasande L, Vandenberg LN, Wagner M, Zimmermann L, Zoeller RT, Scheringer M. 2023. A vision for safer food contact materials: Public health concerns as drivers for improved testing. Environ Int 180:108161. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2023.108161 PMID:37758599
  • Phelps D, Palekar AI, Conley HE, Ferrero G, Driggers JH, Linder KE, Kullman SW, Reif DM, Sheats MK, DeWitt JC, Yoder J. 2023. Legacy and emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances suppress the neutrophil respiratory burst. J Immunotoxicol 20(1):2176953. doi:10.1080/1547691X.2023.2176953 PMID:36788734 PMCID:PMC10361455
  • Rock KD, Polera ME, Guillette TC, Starnes HM, Dean K, Watters M, Stevens-Stewart D, Belcher SM. 2023. Domestic Dogs and Horses as Sentinels of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substance Exposure and Associated Health Biomarkers in Gray's Creek North Carolina. Environ Sci Technol 57(26):9567-9579. doi:10.1021/acs.est.3c01146 PMID:37340551
  • Ruyle BJ, Pickard HM, Schultes L, Fredriksson F, Heffernan AL, Knappe D, Lord HL, Meng P, Mills MA, Ndunga K, Roesch P, Rundberget JT, Tettenhorst DR, Van Buren J, Vogel C, Westerman DC, Yeung LW, Sunderland EM. 2023. Interlaboratory comparison of extractable organofluorine measurements in groundwater and eel (Anguilla rostrata): recommendations for methods standardization. Environ Sci Technol 57(48):20159-20168. doi:10.1021/acs.est.3c04560 PMID:37934924 PMCID:PMC10702518
  • Stewart AK, Foley MH, Dougherty MK, McGill SK, Gulati AS, Gentry E, Hagey LR, Dorrestein PC, Theriot CM, Dodds J, Baker ES. 2023. Using multidimensional separations to distinguish isomeric amino acid-bile acid conjugates and assess their presence and perturbations in model systems. Anal Chem 95(41):15357-15366. doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.3c03057 PMID:37796494
  • Taylor KD, Woodlief TL, Ahmed A, Hu Q, Duncker PC. 2023. Quantifying the impact of PFOA exposure on B cell development and antibody production. Toxicol Sci doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfad043 PMID:37162486 PMCID:PMC10306397
  • Wallis DJ, Kotlarz N, Knappe D, Collier D, Lea CS, Reif DM, McCord JP, Strynar M, DeWitt JC, Hoppin JA. 2023. Estimation of the half-lives of recently detected per- and polyfluorinated alkyl ethers in an exposed community. Environ Sci Technol 57(41):15348-15355. doi:10.1021/acs.est.2c08241 PMID:37801709
  • Zhang C, Tang T, Knappe D. 2023. Oxidation of per- and polyfluoroalkyl ether acids and other per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances by sulfate and hydroxyl radicals: kinetic insights from experiments and models. Environ Sci Technol doi:10.1021/acs.est.3c00947 PMID:37223990


  • Belcher SM, Guillette MP, Robb F, Rock KD. 2022. Comparative assessment of blood mercury in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from Coastal North Carolina and Florida. Ecotoxicology 31(7):1137-1146. doi:10.1007/s10646-022-02573-z PMID:35918620
  • Bilbao A, Gibbons BC, Stow SM, Kyle AD, Bloodsworth KJ, Payne SH, Smith RD, Ibrahim YM, Baker ES, Fjeldsted JC. 2022. A preprocessing tool for enhanced ion mobility-mass spectrometry-based omics workflows. J Proteome Res 21:798-807. doi:10.1021/acs.jproteome.1c00425 PMID:34382401 PMCID:PMC8837709
  • Butler KE, Baker ES. 2022. A high-throughput ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry screening method for opioid profiling. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 33(10):1904-1913. doi:10.1021/jasms.2c00186 PMID:36136315
  • Butler KE, Dodds J, Flick T, Campuzano ID, Baker ES. 2022. High-resolution demultiplexing (HRdm) ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry for aspartic and isoaspartic acid determination and screening. Anal Chem doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.1c05533 PMID:35421308
  • Cohen Hubal EA, DeLuca NM, Mullikin A, Slover R, Little JC, Reif DM. 2022. Demonstrating a systems approach for integrating disparate data streams to inform decisions on children's environmental health. BMC Public Health 22(1):313. doi:10.1186/s12889-022-12682-3 PMID:35168583 PMCID:PMC8845296
  • Dodds J, Wang L, Patti GJ, Baker ES. 2022. Combining isotopologue workflows and simultaneous multidimensional separations to detect, identify, and validate metabolites in untargeted analyses. Anal Chem doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.1c04430 PMID:35089687 PMCID:PMC8934380
  • Doyle MG, Odenkirk MT, Stewart AK, Nelson JP, Baker ES, De La Cruz F. 2022. Assessing the fate of dissolved organic compounds in landfill leachate and wastewater treatment systems. ACS ES&T Wat doi:10.1021/acsestwater.2c00320
  • Ducatman A, LaPier J, Fuoco RE, DeWitt JC. 2022. Official health communications are failing PFAS-contaminated communities. Environmental Health doi:10.1186/s12940-022-00857-9 PMID:35538533 PMCID:PMC9092686
  • Enders J, Weed RA, Griffith EH, Muddiman DC. 2022. Development and validation of a high resolving power absolute quantitative per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances method incorporating Skyline data processing. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 36:e9295. doi:10.1002/rcm.9295 PMID:35275435
  • Evich MG, Davis MJ, McCord JP, Acrey B, Awkerman JA, Knappe D, Lindstrom AB, Speth TF, Tebes-Stevens C, Strynar M, Wang Z, Weber EJ, Henderson WM, Washington JW. 2022. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in the environment. Science 375:doi:10.1126/science.abg9065 PMID:35113710 PMCID:PMC8902460
  • Foster MR, Rainey M, Watson C, Dodds J, Kirkwood KI, Fernandez FM, Baker ES. 2022. Uncovering PFAS and other xenobiotics in the dark metabolome using ion mobility spectrometry, mass defect analysis, and machine learning. Environ Sci Technol 56:doi:10.1021/acs.est.2c00201 PMID:35653285 PMCID:PMC9474714
  • Guillette TC, Jackson TW, Guillette MP, McCord JP, Belcher SM. 2022. Blood concentrations of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances are associated with autoimmune-like effects in American alligators from Wilmington, North Carolina. Front Toxicol 4:doi:10.3389/ftox.2022.1010185
  • Kirkwood KI, Fleming J, Nguyen H, Reif DM, Baker ES, Belcher SM. 2022. Utilizing pine needles to temporally and spatially profile per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Environ Sci Technol 56:3441-3451. doi:10.1021/acs.est.1c06483 PMID:35175744
  • Kirkwood KI, Pratt BS, Shulman N, Tamura K, MacCoss MJ, MacLean BX, Baker ES. 2022. Utilizing Skyline to analyze lipidomics data containing liquid chromatography, ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry dimensions. Nat Protoc doi:10.1038/s41596-022-00714-6 PMID:35831612
  • McDonough CA, Li W, Bischel HN, De Silva AO, DeWitt JC. 2022. Widening the lens on PFASs: Direct human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acid precursors (pre-PFAAs). Environ Sci Technol 56(10):6004-6013. doi:10.1021/acs.est.2c00254 PMID:35324171
  • Odenkirk MT, Horman BM, Dodds J, Patisaul HB, Baker ES. 2022. Combining micropunch histology and multidimensional lipidomic measurements for in-depth tissue mapping. ACS Meas Sci Au 2(1):67-75. doi:10.1021/acsmeasuresciau.1c00035 PMID:35647605 PMCID:PMC9139744
  • Rainey M, Watson C, Asef CK, Foster MR, Baker ES, Fernandez FM. 2022. CCS predictor 2.0: an open-source Jupyter notebook tool for filtering out false positives in metabolomics. Anal Chem 94(50):17456-17466. doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.2c03491 PMID:36473057 PMCID:PMC9772062
  • Roell K, Koval L, Boyles R, Patlewicz G, Ring C, Rider CV, Ward-Caviness C, Reif DM, Jaspers I, Fry RC, Rager JE. 2022. Development of the InTelligence and Machine LEarning (TAME) Toolkit for introductory data science, chemical-biological analyses, predictive modeling, and database mining for environmental health research. Front Toxicol 4:doi:10.3389/ftox.2022.893924 PMID:35812168 PMCID:PMC9257219
  • Rosen EM, Kotlarz N, Knappe D, Lea CS, Collier D, Richardson DB, Hoppin JA. 2022. Drinking water-associated PFAS and fluroethers and lipid outcomes in the GenX exposure study. Environ Health Perspect 130(9):97002. doi:10.1289/EHP11033 PMID:36069575 PMCID:PMC9450637
  • Starnes HM, Rock KD, Jackson TW, Belcher SM. 2022. A critical review and meta-analysis of impacts of per- and polyfluorinated substances on the brain and behavior. Front Toxicol 4:doi:10.3389/ftox.2022.881584 PMID:35480070 PMCID:PMC9035516
  • Truong L, Rericha Y, Thunga P, Marvel S, Wallis DJ, Simonich MT, Field JA, Cao D, Reif DM, Tanguay RL. 2022. Systematic developmental toxicity assessment of a structurally diverse library of PFAS in zebrafish. J Hazard Mater doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.128615 PMID:35263707 PMCID:PMC8970529
  • Wallis DJ, Barton KE, Knappe D, Kotlarz N, McDonough CA, Higgins CP, Hoppin JA, Adgate JL. 2022. Source apportionment of serum PFASs in two highly exposed communities. Sci Total Environ 855:158842. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.158842 PMID:36122706
  • Weed RA, Boatman AK, Enders J. 2022. Recovery of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances after solvent evaporation. Environ Sci Process Impacts doi:10.1039/d2em00269h PMID:36281820
  • Witchey SK, Doyle MG, Fredenburg JD, Armour GS, Horman BM, Odenkirk MT, Aylor DL, Baker ES, Patisaul HB. 2022. Impacts of gestational FireMaster 550 (FM 550) exposure on the neonatal cortex are sex specific and largely attributable to the organophosphate esters. Neuroendocrinology doi:10.1159/000526959 PMID:36075192
  • Zhang C, McElroy AC, Liberatore H, Alexander NL, Knappe D. 2022. Stability of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in solvents relevant to environmental and toxicological analysis. Environ Sci Technol doi:10.1021/acs.est.1c03979 PMID:34734715 PMCID:PMC9065217


  • Aly NA, Dodds J, Luo Y, Grimm FA, Foster MR, Rusyn I, Baker ES. 2021. Utilizing ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry for the characterization and detection of persistent organic pollutants and their metabolites. Anal Bioanal Chem 414(3):doi:10.1007/s00216-021-03686-w PMID:34668045 (ahead of print)
  • Butler KE, Takinami Y, Rainczuk A, Baker ES, Roberts BR. 2021. Utilizing ion mobility-mass spectrometry to investigate the unfolding pathway of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. Front Chem 9:614595. doi:10.3389/fchem.2021.614595 PMID:33634076 PMCID:PMC7900566
  • Dodds J, Alexander NL, Kirkwood KI, Foster MR, Hopkins ZR, Knappe D, Baker ES. 2021. From Pesticides to Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances: An Evaluation of Recent Targeted and Untargeted Mass Spectrometry Methods for Xenobiotics. Anal Chem 93:641-656. doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.0c04359 PMID:33136371
  • Dodds J, Baker ES. 2021. Improving the speed and selectivity of newborn screening using ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry. Anal Chem 93:17094-17102. doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.1c04267 PMID:34851605 PMCID:PMC8730783
  • Enders J, O' Neill G, Whitten JL, Muddiman DC. 2021. Understanding the electrospray ionization response factors of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Anal Bioanal Chem doi:10.1007/s00216-021-03545-8 PMID:34291300
  • Fleming J, Marvel S, Motsinger-Reif A, Reif DM. 2021. ToxPi*GIS Toolkit: creating, viewing, and sharing integrative visualizations for geospatial data using ArcGIS. medRxiv doi:10.1101/2021.10.08.21264756 PMID:34671776 PMCID:PMC8528084
  • Gilchrist PO, Alexander AB, Green AJ, Sanders FE, Hooker AQ, Reif DM. 2021. Development of a pandemic awareness STEM outreach curriculum: Utilizing a computational thinking taxonomy framework. Educ Sci (Basel) 11(3):109. doi:10.3390/educsci11030109 PMID:34824997 PMCID:PMC8612627
  • Jackson TW, Scheibly CM, Polera ME, Belcher SM. 2021. Rapid characterization of human serum albumin binding for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances using differential scanning fluorimetry. Environ Sci Technol 55(18):12291-12301. doi:10.1021/acs.est.1c01200 PMID:34495656 PMCID:PMC8651256
  • Khadempour L, Kyle JE, Webb-Robertson B, Nicora CD, Smith FB, Smith RD, Lipton MS, Currie CR, Baker ES, Burnum-Johnson KE. 2021. From plants to ants: fungal modification of leaf lipids for nutrition and communication in the leaf-cutter ant fungal garden ecosystem. mSystems 6(2):e013070-20. doi:10.1128/mSystems.01307-20 PMID:33758033 PMCID:PMC8547007
  • Kirkwood KI, Christopher MW, Burgess JL, Littau S, Foster K, Richey K, Pratt BS, Shulman N, Tamura K, MacCoss MJ, MacLean BX, Baker ES. 2021. Development and application of multidimensional lipid libraries to investigate lipidomic dysregulation related to smoke inhalation injury severity. J Proteome Res doi:10.1021/acs.jproteome.1c00820 PMID:34874736 PMCID:PMC8741653
  • Kofeler HC, Ahrends R, Baker ES, Ekroos K, Han X, Hoffmann N, Holcapek M, Wenk MR, Liebisch G. 2021. Recommendations for good practice in MS-based lipidomics. J Lipid Res 62:doi:10.1016/j.jlr.2021.100138 PMID:34662536 PMCID:PMC8585648
  • Marvel S, House JS, Wheeler M, Song K, Zhou Y, Wright FA, Chiu WA, Rusyn I, Motsinger-Reif A, Reif DM. 2021. The COVID-19 Pandemic Vulnerability Index (PVI) dashboard: Monitoring county-level vulnerability using visualization, statistical modeling, and machine learning. Environ Health Perspect 129:17701. doi:10.1289/EHP8690 PMID:33400596 PMCID:PMC7785295
  • Odenkirk MT, Reif DM, Baker ES. 2021. Multiomic big data analysis challenges: Increasing confidence in the interpretation of artificial intelligence assessments. Anal Chem 93(22):7763-7773. doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.0c04850 PMID:34029068
  • Wallis DJ, Truong L, La Du JK, Tanguay RL, Reif DM. 2021. Uncovering evidence for endocrine-disrupting chemicals that elicit differential susceptibility through gene-environment interactions. Toxics doi:10.3390/toxics9040077 PMID:33917455 PMCID:PMC8067468


  • Cohen Hubal EA, Reif DM, Slover R, Mullikin A, Little JC. 2020. Children's environmental health: a systems approach for anticipating impacts from chemicals. Int J Environ Res Public Health 17:13. doi:10.3390/ijerph17228337 PMID:33187264 PMCID:PMC7696947
  • Gluge J, Scheringer M, Cousins IT, Goldenman G, Herzke D, Lohmann R, DeWitt JC, Ng CA, Trier X, Wang Z. 2020. An overview of the uses of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Environ Sci Process Impacts 22:2345-2373. doi:10.1039/d0em00291g PMID:33125022 PMCID:PMC7784712
  • Kwiatkowski C, Andrews DQ, Birnbaum LS, Bruton TA, DeWitt JC, Knappe D, Maffini MV, Miller M, Pelch KE, Reade A, Soehl A, Trier X, Venier M, Wagner CC, Wang Z, Blum A. 2020. Scientific basis for managing PFAS as a chemical class. Environ Sci Technol Lett 7:532-543. doi:10.1021/acs.estlett.0c00255
  • Odenkirk MT, Stratton KG, Bramer LM, Webb-Robertson B, Bloodsworth KJ, Monroe ME, Burnum-Johnson KE, Baker ES. 2020. From Prevention to Disease Perturbations: A Multi-Omic Assessment of Exercise and Myocardial Infarctions. Biomolecules 11(1):40. doi:10.3390/biom11010040 PMID:33396843 PMCID:PMC7824308
  • Odenkirk MT, Stratton KG, Gritsenko MA, Bramer LM, Webb-Robertson B, Bloodsworth KJ, Weitz KK, Lipton AK, Monroe ME, Ash J, Fourches D, Taylor BD, Burnum-Johnson KE, Baker ES. 2020. Unveiling molecular signatures of preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus with multi-omics and innovative cheminformatics visualization tools. Mol Omics 16(6):doi:10.1039/d0mo00074d PMID:32966491 (ahead of print)
  • Odenkirk MT, Zin PK, Ash J, Reif DM, Fourches D, Baker ES. 2020. Structural-based connectivity and omic phenotype evaluations (SCOPE): a cheminformatics toolbox for investigating lipidomic changes in complex systems. Analyst 145:7197-7209. doi:10.1039/d0an01638a PMID:33094747 PMCID:PMC769503
  • Soper-Hopper M, Vandegrift J, Baker ES, Fernandez FM. 2020. Metabolite collision cross section prediction without energy-minimized structures. Analyst 16:doi:10.1039/d0an00198h PMID:32583823 PMCID:PMC7423765
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