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Person Details: Edward D. Levin

Superfund Research Program

Edward D. Levin

Duke University
Neurobehavioral Research Laboratory
Duke University Medical Center
323 Foster Street
Durham, North Carolina 27710
Phone: 919-681-6273
Fax: 919-681-3416


Research Briefs

Hazardous Waste Sites

Atlantic Wood Site, Elizabeth River

  • Duke University: Neurobehavioral Toxicity Core



  • Hawkey AB, Shekey N, Dean C, Asrat H, Koburov R, Holloway Z, Kullman SW, Levin ED. 2024. Developmental exposure to pesticides that disrupt retinoic acid signaling causes persistent retinoid and behavioral dysfunction in zebrafish. Toxicol Sci doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfae001 PMID:38237923
  • Marchese M, Zhu T, Hawkey AB, Wang K, Yuan E, Wen J, Be S, Levin ED, Feng L. 2024. Prenatal and perinatal exposure to Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS)-contaminated drinking water impacts offspring neurobehavior and development. Sci Total Environ 917:170459. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2024.170459 PMID:38290673
  • Stickler A, Hawkey AB, Gondal A, Natarajan S, Mead M, Levin ED. 2024. Embryonic exposures to cadmium and PAHs cause long-term and interacting neurobehavioral effects in zebrafish. Neurotoxicol Teratol 102:107339. doi:10.1016/ PMID:38452988 PMCID:10990771



  • Hawkey AB, Evans J, Holloway Z, Pippen E, Jarrett O, Kenou B, Slotkin TA, Seidler FJ, Levin ED. 2022. Developmental exposure to the flame retardant, triphenyl phosphate, causes long-lasting neurobehavioral and neurochemical dysfunction. Birth Defects Res doi:10.1002/bdr2.2125 PMID:36369782 PMCID:PMC10197196
  • Hawkey AB, Piatos P, Holloway Z, Boyda J, Koburov R, Fleming E, Di Giulio RT, Levin ED. 2022. Embryonic exposure to benzo[a]pyrene causes age-dependent behavioral alterations and long-term metabolic dysfunction in zebrafish. Neurotoxicol Teratol 93:107121. doi:10.1016/ PMID:36089172
  • Hawkey AB, Pippen E, Kenou B, Holloway Z, Slotkin TA, Seidler FJ, Levin ED. 2022. Persistent neurobehavioral and neurochemical anomalies in middle-aged rats after maternal diazinon exposure. Toxicology 472:153189. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2022.153189 PMID:35452779


  • Boyda J, Hawkey AB, Holloway Z, Trevisan R, Di Giulio RT, Levin ED. 2021. The organophosphate insecticide diazinon and aging: Neurobehavioral and mitochondrial effects in zebrafish exposed as embryos or during aging. Neurotoxicol Teratol 87:doi:10.1016/ PMID:34224825 PMCID:PMC8440393
  • Hawkey AB, Holloway Z, Levin ED. 2021. A behavioral test battery to assess larval and adult zebrafish after developmental neurotoxic exposure. Experimental Neurotoxicology Methods 172:353-380. doi:10.1007/978-1-0716-1637-6_16
  • Holloway Z, Hawkey AB, Asrat H, Boinapally N, Levin ED. 2021. The use of tocofersolan as a rescue agent in larval zebrafish exposed to benzo[a]pyrene in early development. Neurotoxicology 86:78-84. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2021.07.003 PMID:34273383
  • Levin ED. 2021. Invited Perspective: Does developmental adaptation pose risks with changing toxicant exposures?. Environ Health Perspect 129(8):81302. doi:10.1289/ehp9560 PMID:34383604 PMCID:PMC8360002
  • Slotkin TA, Levin ED, Seidler FJ. 2021. Paternal cannabis exposure prior to mating, but not 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, elicits deficits in dopaminergic synaptic activity in the offspring. Toxicol Sci 184(2):doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfab117 PMID:34590702




  • Glazer L, Hawkey AB, Wells C, Drastal M, Odamah K, Behl M, Levin ED. 2018. Developmental exposure to low concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants causes life-long behavioral alterations in zebrafish. Toxicol Sci 165(2):487-498. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfy173 PMID:29982741 PMCID:PMC6154272
  • Glazer L, Wells C, Drastal M, Odamah K, Galat RE, Behl M, Levin ED. 2018. Developmental exposure to low concentrations of two brominated flame retardants, BDE-47 and BDE-99, causes life-long behavioral alterations in zebrafish. Neurotoxicology 66:221-232. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2017.09.007 PMID:28935585 PMCID:PMC5858967
  • Levin ED, Abreu-Villaca Y. 2018. Developmental neurotoxicity of nicotine and tobacco. Chapter 39 in: Handbook of Developmental Neurotoxicology, 2nd Edition. Elsevier Inc., pp.439-452.
  • Massarsky A, Abdel A, Glazer L, Levin ED, Di Giulio RT. 2018. Neurobehavioral effects of 1,2-propanediol in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Neurotoxicology 65:111-124. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2018.02.007 PMID:29432853
  • Oliveri A, Ortiz E, Levin ED. 2018. Developmental exposure to an organophosphate flame retardant alters later behavioral responses to dopamine antagonism in zebrafish larvae. Neurotoxicol Teratol 67:25-30. doi:10.1016/ PMID:29559250 PMCID:PMC5970957
  • Pitt JA, Kozal JS, Jayasundara N, Massarsky A, Trevisan R, Geiter N, Wiesner MR, Levin ED, Di Giulio RT. 2018. Uptake, tissue distribution, and toxicity of polystyrene nanoparticles in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio). Aquat Toxicol 194:185-194. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2017.11.017 PMID:29197232
  • Pitt JA, Trevisan R, Massarsky A, Kozal JS, Levin ED, Di Giulio RT. 2018. Maternal transfer of nanoplastics to offspring in zebrafish (Danio rerio): A case study with nanopolystyrene. Sci Total Environ 643:324-334. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.06.186 PMID:29940444


  • Abreu-Villaca Y, Levin ED. 2017. Developmental neurotoxicity of succeeding generations of insecticides. Environ Int 99:55-77. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2016.11.019 PMID:27908457 PMCID:PMC5285268
  • Levin ED. 2017. Neurodevelopmental Toxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Nicotine. Neurotoxicol Teratol 61:153. doi:10.1016/
  • Macaulay LJ, Chernick M, Chen A, Hinton DE, Bailey JM, Kullman SW, Levin ED, Stapleton HM. 2017. Exposure to a PBDE/OH-BDE mixture alters juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio) development. Environ Toxicol Chem 36(1):36-48. doi:10.1002/etc.3535 PMID:27329031
  • Massarsky A, Abdel A, Glazer L, Levin ED, Di Giulio RT. 2017. Exposure to 1,2-propanediol impacts early development of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and induces hyperactivity. Zebrafish 14(3):216-222. doi:10.1089/zeb.2016.1400 PMID:28266909


  • Abreu-Villaca Y, Levin ED. 2016. Developmental neurobehavioral neurotoxicity of insecticides. In: Handbook of Development Neurotoxicology. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. pp.453-466.
  • Bailey JM, Oliveri A, Karbhari N, Brooks RA, De La Rocha AJ, Janardhan S, Levin ED. 2016. Persistent behavioral effects following early life exposure to retinoic acid or valproic acid in zebrafish. Neurotoxicology 52:23-33. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2015.10.001 PMID:26439099 PMCID:PMC4753107
  • Brown DR, Bailey JM, Oliveri A, Levin ED, Di Giulio RT. 2016. Developmental exposure to a complex PAH mixture causes persistent behavioral effects in naive Fundulus heteroclitus (killifish) but not in a population of PAH-adapted killifish. Neurotoxicol Teratol 53:55-63. doi:10.1016/ PMID:26548404 PMCID:PMC4803068
  • Petro A, Sexton HG, Miranda C, Rastogi A, Freedman JH, Levin ED. 2016. Persisting neurobehavioral effects of developmental copper exposure in wildtype and metallothionein 1 and 2 knockout mice. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 17(1):55. doi:10.1186/s40360-016-0096-3 PMID:27802831 PMCID:PMC5090947
  • Slotkin TA, Skavicus S, Card JA, Levin ED, Seidler FJ. 2016. Diverse neurotoxicants target the differentiation of embryonic neural stem cells into neuronal and glial phenotypes. Toxicology 372:42-51. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2016.10.015 PMID:27816694 PMCID:PMC5137195



  • Levin ED, Cauley M, Johnson JE, Cooper EM, Stapleton HM, Ferguson PL, Seidler FJ, Slotkin TA. 2014. Prenatal dexamethasone augments the neurobehavioral teratology of chlorpyrifos: significance for maternal stress and preterm labor. Neurotoxicol Teratol 41:35-42. doi:10.1016/ PMID:24177596 PMCID:PMC3943881


  • Bailey JM, Oliveri A, Levin ED. 2013. Zebrafish model systems for developmental neurobehavioral toxicology. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today 99:14-23. doi:10.1002/bdrc.21027 PMID:23723169 PMCID:PMC4000730
  • Levin ED, Landrigan PJ, Etzel R. 2013. Developmental Toxicology and Children's Environmental Health. In: The Oxford Textbook of Environmental Pediatrics: Environmental Influences on Health, Development and Disease. Oxford, New York, NY. pp.83-88.


  • Roy NM, Arpie B, Linney EA, Levin ED, Cerutti DT, Lugo J. 2012. Brief embryonic strychnine exposure in zebrafish causes long-term adult behavioral impairment with indications of Embryonic synaptic changes. Neurotoxicol Teratol 34:587-591. doi:10.1016/ PMID:23022260 PMCID:PMC4338986




  • Cerutti DT, Levin ED, Eddins D, Petro A, Williams P. 2009. Nicotine effects on learning in zebrafish: the role of dopaminergic systems. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 202(1-3):103-109. doi:10.1007/s00213-008-1287-4 PMID:18716760
  • Levin ED, Aschner M, Heberlein U, Ruden D, Welsh-Bohmer KA, Bartlett S, Berger K, Chen L, Corl AB, Eddins D, French R, Hayden KM, Helmcke K, Hirsch HV, Linney EA, Lnenicka G, Page GP, Possidente D, Possidente B, Kirshner A. 2009. Genetic aspects of behavioral neurotoxicology. Neurotoxicology 30(5):741-753. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2009.07.014 PMID:19647018 PMCID:PMC4086839
  • Slotkin TA, Lassiter TL, Ryde IT, Wrench N, Levin ED, Seidler FJ. 2009. Consumption of a high-fat diet in adulthood ameliorates the effects of neonatal parathion exposure on acetylcholine systems in rat brain regions. Environ Health Perspect 117(6):916-22. PMID:19590683
  • Slotkin TA, Wrench N, Ryde IT, Lassiter TL, Levin ED, Seidler FJ. 2009. Neonatal parathion exposure disrupts serotonin and dopamine synaptic function in rat brain regions: modulation by a high-fat diet in adulthood. Neurotoxicol Teratol 31(6):390-399. doi:10.1016/ PMID:19616088 PMCID:PMC2761992


  • Bencan Z, Levin ED. 2008. The role of alpha7 and alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptors in the nicotine-induced anxiolytic effect in zebrafish. Physiol Behav 95(3):408-412. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2008.07.009 PMID:18671990 PMCID:PMC3174522
  • Lassiter TL, Ryde IT, MacKillop EA, Brown KK, Levin ED, Seidler FJ, Slotkin TA. 2008. Exposure of neonatal rats to parathion elicits sex-selective reprogramming of metabolism and alters the response to a high-fat diet in adulthood. Environ Health Perspect 116(11):1456-1462. doi:10.1289/ehp.11673 PMID:19057696 PMCID:PMC2592263
  • Roegge CS, Timofeeva OA, Seidler FJ, Slotkin TA, Levin ED. 2008. Developmental diazinon neurotoxicity in rats: later effects on emotional response. Brain Res Bull 75:168-172. PMID:18158111
  • Slotkin TA, Bodwell BE, Levin ED, Seidler FJ. 2008. Neonatal exposure to low doses of diazinon: long-term effects on neural cell development and acetylcholine systems. Environ Health Perspect 116(3):340-348. doi:10.1289/ehp.11005 PMID:18335101 PMCID:PMC2265026
  • Slotkin TA, Bodwell BE, Ryde IT, Levin ED, Seidler FJ. 2008. Exposure of neonatal rats to parathion elicits sex-selective impairment of acetylcholine systems in brain regions during adolescence and adulthood. Environ Health Perspect 116(10):1308-1314. doi:10.1289/ehp.11451 PMID:18941570 PMCID:PMC2569087
  • Slotkin TA, Ryde IT, Levin ED, Seidler FJ. 2008. Developmental neurotoxicity of low dose diazinon exposure of neonatal rats: effects on serotonin systems in adolescence and adulthood. Brain Res Bull 75(5):640-647. doi:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2007.10.008 PMID:18355640 PMCID:PMC2322865
  • Timofeeva OA, Roegge CS, Seidler FJ, Slotkin TA, Levin ED. 2008. Persistent cognitive alterations in rats after early postnatal exposure to low doses of the organophosphate pesticide, diazinon. Neurotoxicol Teratol 30(1):38-45. doi:10.1016/ PMID:18096363 PMCID:PMC2262840
  • Timofeeva OA, Sanders D, Seemann K, Yang L, Hermanson D, Regenbogen S, Kallepalli A, Rastogi A, Braddy D, Wells C, Perraut C, Seidler FJ, Slotkin TA, Levin ED, Agoos S. 2008. Persistent behavioral alterations in rats neonatally exposed to low doses of the organophosphate pesticide, parathion. Brain Res Bull 77(6):404-411. doi:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2008.08.019 PMID:18817854 PMCID:PMC2612039
  • West AK, Hidalgo J, Eddins D, Levin ED, Aschner M. 2008. Metallothionein in the central nervous system: roles in protection, regeneration and cognition. Neurotoxicology 29(3):489-503. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2007.12.006 PMID:18313142 PMCID:PMC2486367


  • Levin ED, Bencan Z, Cerutti DT. 2007. Anxiolytic effects of nicotine in zebrafish. Physiol Behav 90(1):54-8. PMID:17049956


  • Cerutti DT, Levin ED. 2006. Cognitive impairments models using complementary species. In: Animal Models of Cognitive Impairment. CRC Press, NY. pp.315-342.
  • Levin ED, Perraut C, Pollard N, Freedman JH. 2006. Metallothionein expression and neurocognitive function in mice. Physiol Behav 87(3):513-518. PMID:16430929
  • Slotkin TA, Levin ED, Seidler FJ. 2006. Comparative developmental neurotoxicity of organophosphate insecticides: effects on brain development are separable from systemic toxicity. Environ Health Perspect 114(5):746-751. PMID:16675431
  • Slotkin TA, Tate CA, Ryde IT, Levin ED, Seidler FJ. 2006. Organophosphate insecticides target the serotonergic system in developing rat brain regions: disparate effects of diazinon and parathion at doses spanning the threshold for cholinesterase inhibition. Environ Health Perspect 114:1542-1545. PMID:17035140
  • Timme-Laragy AR, Levin ED, Di Giulio RT. 2006. Developmental and behavioral effects of embryonic exposure to the polybrominated diphenylether mixture DE-71 in the killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Chemosphere 62(7):1097-1104. PMID:16045967


  • Aldridge JE, Levin ED, Seidler FJ, Slotkin TA. 2005. Developmental exposure of rats to chlorpyrifos leads to behavioral alterations in adulthood, involving serotonergic mechanisms and resembling animal models of depression. Environ Health Perspect 113(5):527-531. PMID:15866758


  • Icenogle LM, Christopher NC, Blackwelder WP, Caldwell DP, Qiao D, Seidler FJ, Slotkin TA, Levin ED. 2004. Behavioral alterations in adolescent and adult rats caused by a brief subtoxic exposure to chlorpyrifos during neurulation. Neurotoxicol Teratol 26(1):95-101. PMID:15001218
  • Levin ED, Swain HA, Donerly S, Linney EA. 2004. Developmental chlorpyrifos effects on hatchling zebrafish swimming behavior. Neurotoxicol Teratol 26(6):719-723. PMID:15451035


  • Levin ED, Chrysanthis E, Yacsin K, Linney EA. 2003. Chlorpyrifos exposure of developing zebrafish: effects on survival and long-term effects on response latency and spatial discrimination. Neurotoxicol Teratol 25(1):51-57. PMID:12633736


  • Levin ED, Addy N, Baruah A, Elias A, Christopher NC, Seidler FJ, Slotkin TA. 2002. Prenatal chlorpyrifos exposure in rats causes persistent behavioral alterations. Neurotoxicol Teratol 24(6):733-741. PMID:12460655


  • Arthur D, Levin ED. 2001. Spatial and non-spatial visual discrimination learning in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Anim Cogn 4:125-131.
  • Levin ED, Addy N, Nakajima A, Christopher NC, Seidler FJ, Slotkin TA. 2001. Persistent behavioral consequences of neonatal chlorpyrifos exposure in rats. Brain Res Dev Brain Res 130(1):83-89. PMID:11557096


  • Bushnell PJ, Marrocco RT, Strupp BJ, Sarter MF, Levin ED, Warburton DH. 2000. Attention as a target of intoxication; Insights and methods from studies of drug abuse. Neurotoxicol Teratol 22(4):487-502. PMID:10974587
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