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Person Details: Stephen H. Safe D.Phil.

Superfund Research Program

Stephen H. Safe D.Phil.

Texas A&M University
Veterinary Physiology & Pharmacology
410 Vet. Medical Research Building
4466 TAMU
College Station, Texas 77843-4466
Phone: 979-845-5988
Fax: 979-862-4929





  • Phillips TD, Richardson MB, Cheng YL, He L, McDonald TJ, Cizmas LH, Safe SH, Donnelly KC, Wang F, Moorthy B, Zhou GD. 2015. Mechanistic relationships between hepatic genotoxicity and carcinogenicity in male B6C3F1 mice treated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures. Arch Toxicol 89(6):967-977. doi:10.1007/s00204-014-1285-8 PMID:24888377 PMCID:PMC4254891



  • Li X, Mertens-Talcott SU, Zhang S, Kim K, Ball J, Safe SH. 2010. MicroRNA-27a indirectly regulates estrogen receptor {alpha} expression and hormone responsiveness in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Endocrinology 151(6):2462-2473. doi:10.1210/en.2009-1150 PMID:20382698 PMCID:PMC2875816


  • Barhoumi R, Catania JM, Parrish AR, Awooda I, Tiffany-Castiglioni E, Safe SH, Burghardt RC. 2009. Multiphoton spectral analysis of benzo[a]pyrene uptake and metabolism in breast epithelial cell lines. J Toxicol Sci 34(1):13-25. doi:10.2131/jts.34.13 PMID:19182432 PMCID:PMC2739812
  • Wu F, Ivanov I, Safe SH. 2009. Role of SP transcription factors in hormone-dependent modulation of genes in MCF-7 breast cancer cells: microarray and RNA interference studies. J Mol Endocrinol 42(1):19-33. doi:10.1677/JME-08-0088 PMID:18952783 PMCID:PMC2642616
  • Zhang S, Lei P, Liu X, Li X, Walker K, Kotha L, Rowlands C, Safe SH. 2009. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor as a target for estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer chemotherapy. Endocr Relat Cancer 16(3):835-844. doi:10.1677/ERC-09-0054 PMID:19447902 PMCID:PMC2766348


  • Higgins KJ, Liu S, Abdelrahim M, Vanderlaag K, Liu X, Porter WW, Metz RP, Safe SH. 2008. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 expression is down-regulated by 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 breast cancer cells by estrogen receptor alpha/Sp proteins. Mol Endocrinol 22(2):388-402. doi:10.1210/me.2007-0319 PMID:18006642 PMCID:PMC2234589
  • Safe SH, Kim K. 2008. Non-classical genomic estrogen receptor (ER)/specificity protein and ER/activating protein-1 signaling pathways. J Mol Endocrinol 41(5):263-275. doi:10.1677/JME-08-0103 PMID:18772268 PMCID:PMC2582054
  • Wu F, Khan S, Wu Q, Barhoumi R, Burghardt RC, Safe SH. 2008. Ligand structure-dependent activation of estrogen receptor alpha/Sp by estrogens and xenoestrogens. Psychiatr Pol 110(1-2):104-115. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2008.02.008 PMID:18400491 PMCID:PMC2519242
  • Wu F, Kim K, Martin J, Safe SH. 2008. In vivo profiling of estrogen receptor/specificity protein-dependent transactivation. Endocrinology 149(11):5696-5705. doi:10.1210/en.2008-0720 PMID:18635651 PMCID:PMC2584598
  • Zhang S, Safe SH. 2008. Ligand-dependent interactions of the Ah receptor with coactivators in a mammalian two-hybrid assay. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 227(2):196-206. PMID:18048071


  • Khan S, Liu S, Stoner M, Safe SH. 2007. Cobaltous chloride and hypoxia inhibit aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated responses in breast cancer cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 223(1):28-38. PMID:17599377
  • Khan S, Wu F, Liu S, Safe SH, Wu Q. 2007. Role of specificity protein transcription factors in estrogen-induced gene expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. J Mol Endocrinol 39(4):289-304. doi:10.1677/JME-07-0043 PMID:17909268
  • Safe SH, Khan S, Wu F, Li X. 2007. Chemical-induced estrogenicity. In: Veterinary Toxicology: Basic and Clinical Principles. Elsevier, New York,
  • Wu F, Safe SH. 2007. Differential activation of wild-type estrogen receptor alpha and C-terminal deletion mutants by estrogens, antiestrogens and xenoestrogens in breast cancer cells. Psychiatr Pol 103(1):1-9. PMID:17141713


  • Abdelrahim M, Ariazi E, Kim K, Khan S, Barhoumi R, Burghardt RC, Liu S, Hill DS, Finnell RH, Wlodarczyk BJ, Jordan VC, Safe SH. 2006. 3-Methylcholanthrene and other aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists directly activate estrogen receptor alpha. Cancer Res 66(4):2459-2467. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-3132 PMID:16489053
  • Barhoumi R, Awooda I, Mouneimne Y, Safe SH, Burghardt RC. 2006. Effects of benzo-a-pyrene on oxytocin-induced Ca2+ oscillations in myometrial cells. Toxicol Lett 165(2):133-141. PMID:16567066
  • Khan S, Konstantinov A, Chittim B, McAlees A, Yeo B, Safe SH. 2006. Structure-dependent Ah receptor agonist activities of chlorinated biphenylenes. Toxicol In Vitro 20(7):1234-1237. PMID:16759834
  • Liu S, Abdelrahim M, Khan S, Ariazi E, Jordan VC, Safe SH. 2006. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists directly activate estrogen receptor alpha in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Biol Chem 387(9):1209-1213. doi:10.1515/BC.2006.149 PMID:16972788
  • Safe SH. 2006. Polychlorinated biphenyls. In: Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 4th Edition. Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, PA.
  • Safe SH, Papineni S. 2006. The role of xenoestrogenic compounds in the development of breast cancer. Trends Pharmacol Sci 27(8):447-454. PMID:16822555


  • Safe SH. 2005. Clinical correlates of environmental endocrine disruptors. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 16(4):139-144. PMID:15860409


  • Cizmas LH, Zhou GD, Safe SH, McDonald TJ, Zhu L, Donnelly KC. 2004. Comparative in vitro and in vivo genotoxicities of 7H-benzo[c]fluorene, manufactured gas plant residue (MGP), and MGP fractions. Environ Mol Mutagen 43(3):159-168. doi:10.1002/em.20011 PMID:15065203


  • Abdelrahim M, Safe SH. 2003. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor gene silencing with small inhibitory RNA differentially modulates Ah-responsiveness in MCF-7 and HepG2 cancer cells. Mol Pharmacol 63(6):1373-1381. PMID:12761348
  • Castro-Rivera E, Safe SH. 2003. 17 beta-estradiol- and 4-hydroxytamoxifen-induced transactivation in breast, endometrial and liver cancer cells is dependent on ER-subtype, cell and promoter context. Psychiatr Pol 84:23-31. PMID:12648521
  • Qin C, Burghardt RC, Smith RL, Wormke M, Stewart J, Safe SH. 2003. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists induce proteasome-dependent degradation of cyclin D1 and estrogen receptor alpha in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Cancer Res 63(5):958-964. PMID:12615709
  • Safe SH. 2003. Toxicology and risk assessment of POPs. In: The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany. pp.224-235.
  • Safe SH, Wormke M. 2003. Inhibitory aryl hydrocarbon receptor-estrogen receptor alpha cross-talk and mechanisms of action. Chem Res Toxicol 16(7):807-816. doi:10.1021/tx034036r PMID:12870882
  • Wormke M, Stoner M, Saville B, Walker K, Abdelrahim M, Burghardt RC, Safe SH. 2003. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediates degradation of estrogen receptor alpha through activation of proteasomes. Mol Cell Biol 23(6):1842-1855. PMID:12612060
  • Zhang S, Qin C, Safe SH. 2003. Flavonoids as aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists/antagonists: effects of structure and cell context. Environ Health Perspect 111(16):1877-1882. PMID:14644660


  • Abdelrahim M, Samudio I, Smith, III R, Burghardt RC, Safe SH. 2002. Small inhibitory RNA duplexes for Sp1 mRNA block basal and estrogen-induced gene expression and cell cycle progression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. J Biol Chem 277(32):28815-28822. PMID:12052832
  • Avakian MD, Dellinger B, Fiedler H, Gullet B, Koshland CP, Marklund S, Oberdorster G, Safe SH, Sarofim A, Smith KR, Schwartz DA, Suk WA. 2002. The origin, fate, and health effects of combustion by-products: A research framework. Environ Health Perspect 110(11):1155-1162. PMID:12417488
  • Barhoumi R, Mouneimne Y, Awooda I, Safe SH, Donnelly KC, Burghardt RC. 2002. Characterization of calcium oscillations in normal and benzo[a]pyrene-treated clone 9 cells. Toxicol Sci 68(2):444-450. PMID:12151640
  • Mealey KL, Barhoumi R, Burghardt RC, Safe SH, Kochevar DT. 2002. Doxycycline induces expression of P glycoprotein in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 46(3):755-761. PMID:11850258
  • Qin C, Nguyen T, Stewart J, Burghardt RC, Safe SH. 2002. Estrogen up-regulation of p53 gene expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells is mediated, by calmodulin kinase IV-dependent activation of a nuclear factor kappa B/CCAAT-binding transcription factor-1 complex. Mol Endocrinol 16(8):1793-1809. PMID:12145335
  • Safe SH. 2002. Environmental estrogens: roles in male reproductive tract problems and in breast cancer. Rev Environ Health 17(4):253-262. PMID:12611468
  • Safe SH. 2002. Exposure to POPs and other congeners. In: Biomarkers of Environmentally Associated Disease: Technologies, Concepts, and Perspectives. CRC Press Company, Boca Raton, FL. pp.455-470.
  • Safe SH, Pallaroni L, Yoon K, Gaido KW, Ross S, McDonnell DP. 2002. Problems for risk assessment of endocrine-active estrogenic compounds. Environ Health Perspect 110(Suppl6):925-929. PMID:12634121
  • Safe SH, Yoon K, Castro-Rivera E, Pallaroni L, Gaido KW. 2002. Ligand structure-dependent activation of the estrogen receptor by xenoestrogens. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed)
  • Stoner M, Saville B, Wormke M, Dean D, Burghardt RC, Safe SH. 2002. Hypoxia induces proteasome-dependent degradation of estrogen receptor a in ZR-75 breast cancer cells. Mol Endocrinol 16(10):2231-2242. PMID:12351689


  • Duan R, Xie W, Burghardt RC, Safe SH. 2001. Estrogen receptor-mediated activation of the serum response element in MCF-7 cells through MAPK-dependent phosphorylation of Elk-1. J Biol Chem 276(15):11590-11598. doi:10.1074/jbc.M005492200 PMID:11145955
  • Lee J, Safe SH. 2001. Involvement of a post-transcriptional mechanism in the inhibition of CYP1A1 expression by resveratrol in breast cancer cells. Biochem Pharmacol 62(8):1113-1124. doi:10.1016/S0006-2952(01)00763-8 PMID:11597580
  • McDougal A, Gupta MS, Morrow D, Ramamoorthy K, Lee J, Safe SH. 2001. Methyl-substituted diindolylmethanes as inhibitors of estrogen-induced growth of T47D cells and mammary tumors in rats. Breast Cancer Res Treat 66(2):147-157. PMID:11437101
  • Safe SH, McDougal A, Gupta MS, Ramamoorthy K. 2001. Selective Ah receptor modulators (SAhRMs): progress towards development of a new class of inhibitors of breast cancer growth. Journal of Women's Cancer 3:37-45.
  • Safe SH, Pallaroni L, Yoon K, Gaido KW, Ross S, Saville B, McDonnell DP. 2001. Toxicology of environmental estrogens. Reproduction, Fertility and Development 13:307-315. PMID:11800169
  • Samudio I, Vyhlidal C, Wang F, Stoner M, Chen I, Kiadde M, Barhoumi R, Burghardt RC, Safe SH. 2001. Transcriptional activation of deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase alpha gene expression in MCF-7 cells by 17 beta-estradiol. Endocrinology 142(3):1000-1008. PMID:11181512
  • Waters KM, Safe SH, Gaido KW. 2001. Differential gene expression in response to methoxychlor and estradiol through ERalpha, ERbeta, and AR in reproductive tissues of female mice. Toxicol Sci 63:47-56. PMID:11509743
  • Yoon K, Pallaroni L, Stoner M, Gaido KW, Safe SH. 2001. Differential activation of wild-type and variant forms of estrogen receptor alpha by synthetic and natural estrogenic compounds using a promoter containing three estrogen-responsive elements. Psychiatr Pol 78(1):25-32. PMID:11530281


  • Barhoumi R, Mouneimne Y, Ramos KS, Safe SH, Phillips TD, Centonze VE, Ainley C, Gupta MS, Burghardt RC. 2000. Analysis of Benzo[a]pyrene partitioning and cellular homeostasis in a rat liver cell line. Toxicol Sci 53:264-270. PMID:10696774
  • Gaido KW, Maness SC, McDonnell DP, Dehal SS, Kupfer D, Safe SH. 2000. Interaction of methoxychlor and related compounds with estrogen receptor alpha and beta, and androgen receptor: structure-activity studies. Mol Pharmacol 58(4):852-858. PMID:10999957
  • Kester MH, Bulduk S, Tibboel D, Meinl W, Glatt H, Falany CN, Coughtrie MW, Bergman A, Safe SH, Kuipper GG, Schuur AG, Brouwer A, Visser TJ. 2000. Potent inhibition of estrogen sulfotransferase by hydroxylated PCB metabolites: a novel pathway explaining the estrogenic activity of PCBs. Endocrinology 141(5):1897-1900. doi:10.1210/endo.141.5.7530 PMID:10803601
  • Lee J, Safe SH. 2000. Interactions of resveratrol and TCDD in human breast cancer cells. Organohalogen Compounds 49:277-280.
  • McDougal A, Gupta MS, Ramamoorthy K, Sun G, Safe SH. 2000. Inhibition of carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumor growth and other estrogen-dependent responses by symmetrical dihalo-substituted analogs of diindolylmethane. Cancer Lett 151(2):169-179. PMID:10738111
  • Safe SH. 2000. Bisphenol A and related endocrine disrupters. Toxicol Sci 56(2):251-252. PMID:10910979
  • Safe SH. 2000. Endocrine disruptors and human health - is there a problem: an update. Environ Health Perspect 108(6):487-493. PMID:10856020
  • Safe SH. 2000. Endocrine Disruptors: New Toxic Menace?. In: Earth Report 2000: Revisiting the True State of the Planet. McGraw Hill, New York, NY. pp.189-202.
  • Safe SH. 2000. Toxicology of persistent organic pollutants. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 102:52-53.
  • Safe SH. 2000. Xenoestrogens and human health. Is there a problem? The argument against. Progr. Environmental Science 21:21-30.
  • Yoon K, Pallaroni L, Ramamoorthy K, Gaido KW, Safe SH. 2000. Ligand structure-dependent differences in activation of estrogen receptor alpha in human HepG2 liver and U2 osteogenic cancer cell lines. Mol Cell Endocrinol 162(1-2):211-220. PMID:10854714


  • Gaido KW, Leonard LS, Maness SC, Hall JM, McDonnell DP, Saville B, Safe SH. 1999. Differential interaction of the methoxychlor metabolite 2,2-bis-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane with estrogen receptors alpha and beta. Endocrinology 140(12):5746-5753. doi:10.1210/endo.140.12.7191 PMID:10579340
  • Ramamoorthy K, Gupta MS, Sun G, McDougal A, Safe SH. 1999. 3,3',4,4'-Tetrachlorobiphenyl exhibits antiestrogenic and antitumorigenic activity in the rodent uterus and mammary and in human breast cancer cells. Carcinogenesis 20:115-123. PMID:9934858
  • Ramamoorthy K, McDougal A, Safe SH. 1999. Structure-Ah receptor agonist/binding activity relationships of various chlorine-substituted diindolylmethane compounds. Organohalogen Compounds 42:363-367.
  • Safe SH. 1999. Development and application of TEFs. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal 5:9-12.
  • Safe SH. 1999. Endocrine disruptors and human health - an update. Organohalogen Compounds 42:15-18.
  • Safe SH. 1999. Environmental estrogens. In: Encyclopedia of Reproduction, Vol 4. Academic Press, pp.1100-1103.


  • Gaido KW, Dohme L, Wang F, Chen I, Blankvoort B, Ramamoorthy K, Safe SH. 1998. Comparative estrogenic activity of wine extracts and organochlorine pesticide residues in food. Environ Health Perspect 106S:1347-1351. PMID:9860891
  • Gould JC, Leonard LS, Maness SC, Wagner BL, Connor K, Zacharewski TR, Safe SH, McDonnell DP, Gaido KW. 1998. Bisphenol A interacts with the estrogen receptor α in a distinct manner from estradiol. Mol Cell Endocrinol 142:203-214. PMID:9783916
  • Gupta MS, Miggins J, Parrish AR, Womack J, Ramos KS, Rodriguez LV, Goldstein L, Holtzapple C, Stanker LH, Safe SH. 1998. Ah receptor-independent induction of CYP1A2 gene expression in genetically inbred mice. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 5:205-213. PMID:21781866
  • Gupta MS, Ramamoorthy K, Safe SH. 1998. Antiestrogenic activity of 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl in T47D human breast cancer cells. Organohalogen Compounds 37:297-300.
  • Hoivik D, Safe SH. 1998. Polychlorinated biphenyls. In: Environmental and Occupational Medicine. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, PA. pp.1205-1214.
  • Ramamoorthy K, Navo M, Gupta MS, Safe SH. 1998. AhR-mediated antiestrogenicity of diindolylmethane and analogs in vivo and in vitro. Organohalogen Compounds 37:321-324.
  • Safe SH. 1998. Development validation and problems with the toxic equivalency factor approach for risk assessment of dioxins and related compounds. J Anim Sci 76:134-141. PMID:9464894
  • Safe SH. 1998. Hazard and risk assessment of chemical mixtures using the toxic equivalency factor approach. Environ Health Perspect 106(supp.4):1051-1058. PMID:9703492
  • Safe SH. 1998. Interactions between hormones and chemicals in breast cancer. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 38:121-158. PMID:9597151
  • Safe SH, Connor K, Gaido KW. 1998. Methods for xenoestrogen testing. Toxicol Lett 102/103:661-666. PMID:10022332
  • Safe SH, Gaido KW. 1998. Phytoestrogens and anthropogenic estrogenic compounds. Environ Toxicol Chem 17:119-126.
  • Safe SH, Wilson CL. 1998. Health effects and risk assessment of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. Cent Eur J Public Health 6:113-116.
  • Willett KL, Randerath K, Zhou GD, Safe SH. 1998. Inhibition of CYP1A1-dependent activity by the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) fluoranthene. Biochem Pharmacol 55:831-839. PMID:9586956
  • Wilson CL, Safe SH. 1998. Mechanisms of ligand-induced aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated biochemical and toxic responses. Toxicol Pathol 26:657-671. PMID:9789953


  • Clement BG, Donnelly KC, Ake, Jr., Garcia S, Chen I, Willett KL, Safe SH, Shalat SL. 1997. Chemical and bioassay analysis of water and soil extracts from South Texas. Organohalogen Compounds 32:216-219.
  • Connor K, Ramamoorthy K, Moore M, Mustain M, Chen I, Safe SH, Zacharewski TR, Gillesby B, Joyeux A, Belaguer P. 1997. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as estrogens and antiestrogens: structure-activity relationships. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 145:111-123. PMID:9221830
  • Fielden MR, Chen I, Chittim B, Safe SH, Zacharewski TR. 1997. Examination of the estrogenicity of 2,4,6,2',6'-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 104), its hydroxylated metabolite 2,4,6,2',6'-pentachloro-4-biphenylol (HO-PCB 104), and a further chlorinated derivative, 2,4,6,2',4',6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 155). Environ Health Perspect 105(11):1238-1248. PMID:9370515 PMCID:PMC1470342
  • Gray LE, Klece WR, Wiese T, Tyl R, Gaido KW, Cook J, Klinefelter G, Desaulniers D, Wilson E, Zacharewski TR, Waller C, Foster P, Laskey J, Reel J, Giesy JP, Laws S, McLachlan JA, Breslin W, Cooper R, Di Giulio RT, Johnson R, Purdy R, Mihaich E, Safe SH, Sonnenschein C, Welshons W, Miller R, McMaster S, Colborn T. 1997. Endocrine screening methods workshop report: detection of estrogenic and androgenic hormonal and antihormonal activity for chemicals that act via receptor or steroidogenic enzyme mechanisms. Reprod Toxicol 11(5):719-750. PMID:9311581
  • Moore M, Mustain M, Daniel KD, Chen I, Safe SH, Zacharewski TR, Gillesby B, Joyeux A, Belaguer P. 1997. Antiestrogenic activity of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl congeners identified in human serum. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 142:160-168. PMID:9007045
  • Ramamoorthy K, Safe SH. 1997. The antiestrogenic activity of 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl in the immature mouse uterus. Organohalogen Compounds 34:334-337.
  • Ramamoorthy K, Vyhlidal C, Wang F, Chen I, Safe SH, McDonnell DP, Leonard LS, Gaido KW. 1997. Additive estrogenic activities of a binary mixture of 2',4',6'-trichloro- and 2',3',4',5'-tetrachloro-4-biphenylol. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 147:93-100. PMID:9356311
  • Ramamoorthy K, Wang F, Chen I, Norris JD, McDonnell DP, Gaido KW, Bocchinfuso WP, Korach KS, Safe SH. 1997. Potency of combined estrogenic pesticides. Science 275:405. PMID:9005556
  • Ramamoorthy K, Wang F, Chen I, Norris JD, McDonnell DP, Leonard LS, Gaido KW, Bocchinfuso WP, Korach KS, Safe SH. 1997. Estrogenic activity of a dieldrin/toxaphene mixture in the mouse uterus, MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, and yeast-based estrogen receptor assays: no apparent synergism. Endocrinology 138:1520-1527. PMID:9075711
  • Randerath K, Zhou GD, Randerath E, Safe SH, Donnelly KC. 1997. Comparative [32P]-postlabeling analysis of exogenous and endogenous DNA adducts in mouse skin exposed to a wood-preserving waste extract, a complex mixture of polycyclic and polychlorinated chemicals. Environ Mol Mutagen 29(4):372-378. PMID:9212788
  • Safe SH. 1997. Limitations of the toxic equivalency factor approach for risk assessment of TCDD and related compounds. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen 17:285-304. PMID:9508738
  • Safe SH, Connor K, Ramamoorthy K, Gaido KW, Maness SC. 1997. Human exposure to endocrine-active chemicals: hazard assessment problems. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 26:52-58. PMID:9339480
  • Wang W, Porter WW, Burghardt RC, Safe SH. 1997. Mechanism of inhibition of MDA-MB-468 cell growth by 2,3,7,8,-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Carcinogenesis 18:925-933. PMID:9163677
  • Wang W, Smith, III R, Burghardt RC, Safe SH. 1997. 17 beta-Estradiol-mediated growth inhibition of MDA-MB-468 cells stably transfected with the estrogen receptor: cell cycle effects. Mol Cell Endocrinol 133(1):49-62. PMID:9359472
  • Willett KL, Safe SH. 1997. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls identified in human serum as inducers and inhibitors of EROD activity in the H4IIE cell bioassay. Organohalogen Compounds 34:172-177.
  • Zacharewski TR, Sutter TR, Safe SH, Greenlee WF, Connolly RB. 1997. Concerns with the use of a toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach for risk assessment of "dioxin-like" compounds. Organohalogen Compounds 34:91-94.
  • Zhao F, Mayura K, Kocurek N, Edwards JF, Kubena LF, Safe SH, Phillips TD. 1997. Inhibition of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl-induced chicken embryotoxicity by 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl. Fundam Appl Toxicol 35:1-8. PMID:9024668
  • Zhao F, Mayura K, Safe SH, Phillips TD, Harper N. 1997. Inhibition of 3,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl induced fetal cleft palate and immunotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice by 2,2',4,4',5,5'-Hexacholorobiphenyl. Chemosphere 34(5-7):1605-1613. doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(97)00456-6 PMID:9134691


  • Barhoumi R, Mouneimne Y, Phillips TD, Safe SH, Burghardt RC. 1996. Alteration of oxytocin-induced calcium oscillations in Clone 9 cells by toxin-exposure. Fundam Appl Toxicol 33:220-228. PMID:8921340
  • Bowes RC, Parrish AR, Steinberg MA, Willett KL, Zhao W, Savas U, Jefcoate CR, Safe SH, Ramos KS. 1996. Atypical cytochrome P450 profiles in glomerular mesangial cells at the mRNA and enzyme level. Evidence for CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression and their involvement in benzo(a)pyrene metabolism. Biochem Pharmacol 52(4):587-595. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(96)00310-3 PMID:8759031
  • Connor K, Ramamoorthy K, Safe SH. 1996. The effects of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the immature rat and mouse uterus. Organohalogen Compounds 29:312-315.
  • Hanneman WH, Legare ME, Barhoumi R, Burghardt RC, Safe SH, Tiffany-Castiglioni E. 1996. Stimulation of calcium uptake in cultured rat hippocampal neurons by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenxo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Toxicology 112:19-28. PMID:8792845
  • Markiewicz KV, Howie LE, Safe SH, Donnelly KC. 1996. Mutagenic potential of binary and complex mixtures using different enzyme induction systems. J Toxicol Environ Health A 47:443-451. PMID:8614014
  • Randerath E, Zhou GD, Donnelly KC, Safe SH, Randerath K. 1996. DNA damage induced in mouse tissues by organic wood preserving waste extracts as assayed by 32P-postlabeling. Arch Toxicol 70(11):683-695. PMID:8896714
  • Washburn KS, Huebner HJ, Safe SH, Phillips TD, Donnelly KC. 1996. Development of an Instrumental Fractionation and Quantitation Scheme for Selected Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons Present in extracts from Wood-Preserving Waste. In: Proceedings of the Hazardous Substance Research Center (HSRC) / Waste-Management Education & Research Consortium Joint Conference on the Environment. pp.400-407.


  • Chaloupka K, Steinberg MA, Santostefano M, Rodriguez LV, Goldstein L, Safe SH. 1995. Induction of Cyp1a-1 and Cyp1a-2 gene expression by a reconstituted mixture of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in B6C3F1 mice. Chem Biol Interact 96:207-221. PMID:7750161
  • Connor K, Harper N, Safe SH. 1995. Toxic equivalency factors for mono- and diortho-substituted PCB congeners in B6C3F1 mice. Organohalogen Compounds 25:319-322.
  • Connor K, Safe SH. 1995. Development and validation of toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCBs in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Organohalogen Compounds 25:323-326.
  • Connor K, Safe SH, Jefcoate CR, Larsen M. 1995. Structure-dependent induction of CYP2B by polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Biochem Pharmacol 50:1913-1920. PMID:8615872
  • Connor K, Steinberg MA, Safe SH, Harper N. 1995. Immunosuppressive activity of polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures and congeners: non-additive (antagonistic) interactions. Fundam Appl Toxicol 27(1):131-139. doi:10.1006/faat.1995.1116 PMID:7589923
  • Dickerson R, Howie-Keller L, Safe SH. 1995. Alkyl polychlorinated dibenzofurans and related compounds as antiestrogens in the female rat uterus: Structure-Activity Studies. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 135:287-298. PMID:8545839
  • Donnelly KC, Safe SH, Randerath K. 1995. Bioassay-based risk assessment of complex mixtures. J Hazard Mater 41:341-350.
  • Harper N, Steinberg MA, Thomsen J, Safe SH. 1995. Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon-induced suppression of the plaque-forming cell response in B6C3F1 splenocytes cultured with allogenic mouse serum: Ah receptor structure activity relationships. Toxicology 99:199-206. PMID:7610466
  • Safe SH. 1995. Human dietary intake of aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor agonists: mass balance estimates of exodioxins and endodioxins and implications for health assessment. Organohalogen Compounds 26:7-13.
  • Safe SH, Rodriguez LV, Goldstein L. 1995. Toxic equivalency factor approach for risk assessment of combustion by-products. Toxicol Sci 49:181-191.
  • Safe SH, Washburn KS, Zacharewski TR, Phillips TD. 1995. Synthesis and characterization of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) identified in human serum. Chemosphere 31(4):3017-3023. doi:10.1016/0045-6535(95)00162-2 PMID:7552046


  • Li X, Zhang S, Safe SH. 1983. [Central effect of thyroliberin (TRH)]. Psychiatr Pol 17(1):77-84. PMID:16413991
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