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Person Details: Stephen M. Rappaport

Superfund Research Program

Stephen M. Rappaport

University of California-Berkeley
School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health Sciences
2121 Berkeley Way West, Room 5302
Berkeley, California 94720-7360
Phone: 510-642-4355
Fax: 510-642-5815


Research Briefs



  • Grigoryan H, Imani P, Sacerdote C, Masala G, Grioni S, Tumino R, Chiodini P, Dudoit S, Vineis P, Rappaport SM. 2023. HSA adductomics reveals sex differences in NHL incidence and possible involvement of microbial translocation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 32(9):1217-1226. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-23-0231 PMID:37409972
  • Rahman ML, Bassig BA, Grigoryan H, Hu W, Hosgood H, Huang W, Wong JY, Strickland P, Rappaport SM, Lan Q, Rothman N. 2023. A nested case-control study of untargeted albumin adductomics and acute myeloid leukemia. Int J Cancer doi:10.1002/ijc.34550 PMID:37138425


  • Wong JY, Imani P, Grigoryan H, Bassig BA, Dai Y, Huang W, Blechter B, Rahman ML, Ji B, Duan H, Niu Y, Ye M, Jia X, Meng T, Bin P, Downward G, Meliefste K, Leng S, Fu W, Yang J, Ren D, Xu J, Zhou B, Hosgood H, Vermeulen R, Zheng Y, Silverman DT, Rothman N, Rappaport SM, Lan Q. 2022. Exposure to diesel engine exhaust and alterations to the Cys34/Lys525 adductome of human serum albumin. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 95:103966. doi:10.1016/j.etap.2022.103966 PMID:36067935


  • Chung MK, Rappaport SM, Wheelock CE, Nguyen VK, van der Meer TP, Miller G, Vermeulen R, Patel CJ. 2021. Utilizing a biology-driven approach to map the exposome in health and disease: An essential investment to drive the next generation of environmental discovery. Environ Health Perspect 129(8):85001. doi:10.1289/EHP8327 PMID:34435882 PMCID:PMC8388254
  • Rothman N, Vermeulen R, Zhang L, Hu W, Yin S, Rappaport SM, Smith MT, Jones DP, Rahman M, Lan Q, Walker DI. 2021. Metabolome-wide association study of occupational exposure to benzene. Carcinogenesis 42(11):doi:10.1093/carcin/bgab089 PMID:34606590 (ahead of print)
  • Whitehead TP, Wiemels JL, Zhou M, Kang AY, McCoy LS, Wang R, Fitch B, Petrick L, Yano Y, Imani P, Rappaport SM, Dahl GV, Kogan SC, Ma X, Metayer C. 2021. Cytokine levels at birth in children who developed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 30(8):1526-1535. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1704 PMID:34078642 PMCID:PMC8338848
  • Zhang P, Carlsten C, Chaleckis R, Hanhineva K, Huang M, Isobe T, Koistinen VM, Meister I, Papazian S, Sdougkou K, Xie H, Martin JW, Rappaport SM, Tsugawa H, Walker DI, Woodruff TJ, Wright RO, Wheelock CE. 2021. Defining the scope of exposome studies and research needs from a multidisciplinary perspective. Environ Sci Technol Lett 8(10):839-852. doi:10.1021/acs.estlett.1c00648 PMID:34660833 PMCID:PMC8515788


  • Sille FC, Karakitsios S, Kleensang A, Koehler K, Maertens A, Miller G, Prasse C, Quiros-Alcala L, Ramachandran G, Rappaport SM, Rule A, Sarigiannis D, Smirova L, Hartung T. 2020. The exposome: A new approach for risk assessment. ALTEX 37:3-23. doi:10.14573/altex.2001051 PMID:31960937
  • Wheelock CE, Rappaport SM. 2020. The role of gene environment interactions in lung disease: The urgent need for the exposome. European Respiratory Journal 55:6. doi:10.1183/13993003.02064-2019 PMID:32029645
  • Yano Y, Schiffman C, Grigoryan H, Hayes J, Edmands WM, Petrick L, Whitehead TP, Metayer C, Dudoit S, Rappaport SM. 2020. Untargeted adductomics of newborn dried blood spots identifies modifications to human serum albumin associated with childhood leukemia. Leuk Res 88:106268. doi:10.1016/j.leukres.2019.106268 PMID:31760269 PMCID:PMC6937378



  • Edmands WM, Hayes J, Rappaport SM. 2018. SimExTargId: a comprehensive package for real-time LC-MS data acquisition and analysis. Bioinformatics 34(20):3589-3590. doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/bty218 PMID:29790936 PMCID:PMC6184452
  • Grigoryan H, Edmands WM, Lan Q, Carlsson H, Vermeulen R, Zhang L, Yin S, Li G, Smith MT, Rothman N, Rappaport SM. 2018. Adductomic signatures of benzene exposure provide insights into cancer induction. Carcinogenesis 39:661-668. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgy042 PMID:29538615 PMCID:PMC5932554
  • Liu S, Grigoryan H, Edmands WM, Dagnino S, Sinharay R, Cullinan P, Collins P, Chung KF, Barratt B, Kelly FJ, Vineis P, Rappaport SM. 2018. Cys34 adductomes differ between patients with chronic lung or heart disease and healthy controls in central London. Environ Sci Technol 52(4):2307-2313. doi:10.1021/acs.est.7b05554 PMID:29350914
  • Perttula K, Schiffman C, Edmands WM, Petrick L, Grigoryan H, Cai X, Gunter MJ, Naccarati A, Polidoro S, Dudoit S, Vineis P, Rappaport SM. 2018. Untargeted lipidomic features associated with colorectal cancer in a prospective cohort. BMC Cancer 18:996. doi:10.1186/s12885-018-4894-4 PMID:30340609 PMCID:PMC6194742
  • Rappaport SM. 2018. Redefining environmental exposure for disease etiology. Nature 4(30):doi:10.1038/s41540-018-0065-0 PMID:30181901 PMCID:PMC6119193
  • Schiffman C, McHale CM, Hubbard AE, Zhang L, Thomas R, Vermeulen R, Li G, Shen M, Rappaport SM, Yin S, Lan Q, Smith MT, Rothman N. 2018. Identification of gene expression predictors of occupational benzene exposure. PLoS One 13(10):e0205427. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0205427 PMID:30300410


  • Bessonneau V, Pawliszyn J, Rappaport SM. 2017. The saliva exposome for monitoring of individuals' health trajectories. Environ Health Perspect 125:10. doi:10.1289/ehp1011 PMID:28743678 PMCID:PMC5801473
  • Edmands WM, Petrick L, Barupal D, Scalbert A, Wilson MJ, Wickliffe JK, Rappaport SM. 2017. compMS2Miner: an automatable metabolite identification, visualization, and data-sharing R package for high-resolution LC-MS data sets. Anal Chem 89(7):3919-3928. doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.6b02394 PMID:28225587 PMCID:PMC6338221
  • Lu SS, Grigoryan H, Edmands WM, Hu W, Iavarone A, Hubbard AE, Rothman N, Vermeulen R, Lan Q, Rappaport SM. 2017. Profiling the serum albumin Cys34 adductome of solid fuel users in Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China. Environ Sci Technol 51(1):46-57. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b03955 PMID:27936627 PMCID:PMC5567851
  • Petrick L, Edmands WM, Schiffman C, Grigoryan H, Perttula K, Yano Y, Dudoit S, Whitehead TP, Metayer C, Rappaport SM. 2017. An untargeted metabolomics method for archived newborn dried blood spots in epidemiologic studies. Metabolomics 13:27. doi:10.1007/s11306-016-1153-z PMID:29706849 PMCID:PMC5918689


  • Bassig BA, Zhang L, Vermeulen R, Tang X, Li G, Hu W, Guo W, Purdue MP, Yin S, Rappaport SM, Shen M, Ji Z, Qiu C, Ge Y, Hosgood H, Reiss B, Wu B, Xie Y, Li L, Yue F, Freeman LB, Blair AE, Hayes RB, Huang H, Smith MT, Rothman N, Lan Q. 2016. Comparison of hematological alterations and markers of B-cell activation in workers exposed to benzene, formaldehyde and trichloroethylene. Carcinogenesis 37(7):692-700. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgw053 PMID:27207665 PMCID:PMC4936387
  • Perttula K, Edmands WM, Grigoryan H, Cai X, Iavarone A, Gunter MJ, Naccarati A, Polidoro S, Hubbard AE, Vineis P, Rappaport SM. 2016. Evaluating ultra-long-chain fatty acids as biomarkers of colorectal cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 25(8):1216-1223. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-16-0204 PMID:27257090
  • Rappaport SM. 2016. Genetic factors are not the major causes of chronic diseases. PLoS One 11(4):e0154387. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0154387 PMID:27105432 PMCID:PMC4841510


  • Lan Q, Smith MT, Tang X, Guo W, Vermeulen R, Ji Z, Hu W, Hubbard AE, Shen M, McHale CM, Qiu C, Liu S, Reiss B, Beane-Freeman L, Blair AE, Ge Y, Xiong J, Li L, Rappaport SM, Huang H, Rothman N, Zhang L. 2015. Chromosome-wide aneuploidy study of cultured circulating myeloid progenitor cells from workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde. Carcinogenesis 36(1):160-167. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgu229 PMID:25391402 PMCID:PMC4291049
  • Whitehead TP, Ward MH, Dahl G, Ducore J, Reinier K, Gunier RB, Hammond SK, Rappaport SM, Metayer C. 2015. Dust metal loadings and the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 25(6):593-598. doi:10.1038/jes.2015.9 PMID:25736162 PMCID:PMC4560677


  • Bassig BA, Zhang L, Cawthon RM, Smith MT, Yin S, Li G, Hu W, Shen M, Rappaport SM, Barone-Adesi F, Rothman N, Vermeulen R, Lan Q. 2014. Alterations in leukocyte telomere length in workers occupationally exposed to benzene. Environ Mol Mutagen 55(8):673-678. doi:10.1002/em.21880 PMID:24945723 PMCID:PMC4360990
  • Cai X, Perttula K, Pajouh S, Hubbard AE, Nomura DK, Rappaport SM. 2014. Untargeted lipidomic profiling of human plasma reveals differences due to race, gender and smoking status. Metabolomics 4:131. doi:10.4172/2153-0769.1000131
  • Lu SS, Sobus JR, Sallsten G, Albin M, Pleil JD, Gudmundsson A, Madden MC, Strandberg B, Wierzbicka A, Rappaport SM. 2014. Are urinary PAHs biomarkers of controlled exposure to diesel exhaust?. Biomarkers 19(4):332-339. doi:10.3109/1354750X.2014.910553 PMID:24754404 PMCID:PMC4737554
  • Rappaport SM, Barupal D, Wishart D, Vineis P, Scalbert A. 2014. The blood exposome and its role in discovering causes of disease. Environ Health Perspect 122(8):769-774. doi:10.1289/ehp.1308015 PMID:24659601 PMCID:PMC4123034
  • Thomas R, Hubbard AE, McHale CM, Zhang L, Rappaport SM, Lan Q, Rothman N, Vermeulen R, Guyton KZ, Jinot J, Sonawane B, Smith MT. 2014. Characterization of changes in gene expression and biochemical pathways at low levels of benzene exposure. PLoS One 9(5):e91828. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091828 PMID:24786086 PMCID:PMC4006721
  • Ward MH, Colt JS, Deziel NC, Whitehead TP, Reynolds P, Gunier RB, Nishioka M, Dahl GV, Rappaport SM, Buffler PA, Metayer C. 2014. Residential levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in California. Environ Health Perspect 122(10):1110-1116. doi:10.1289/ehp.1307602 PMID:24911217 PMCID:PMC4181922
  • Whitehead T, Brown F, Metayer C, Park J, Does MB, Dhaliwal J, Petreas MX, Buffler PA, Rappaport SM. 2014. Polychlorinated biphenyls in residential dust: sources of variability. Environ Sci Technol 48:157-164. doi:10.1021/es403863m PMID:24313682 PMCID:PMC3941978


  • McHale CM, Zhang L, Lan Q, Thomas R, Hubbard AE, Vermeulen R, Li G, Rappaport SM, Yin S, Smith MT, Rothman N. 2013. Toxicogenomic and systems biology approaches in the understanding of toxicity and leukemogenesis induced by benzene. The Toxicologist, Society of Toxicology Meeting, March 2013.
  • Rappaport SM, Johnson BA, Bois FY, Kupper LL, Kim S, Thomas R. 2013. Ignoring and adding errors do not improve the science. Carcinogenesis 34(7):1689-1691. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgt100 PMID:23528242 PMCID:PMC3697890
  • Rappaport SM, Kim S, Thomas R, Johnson BA, Bois FY, Kupper LL. 2013. Low-dose metabolism of benzene in humans: science and obfuscation. Carcinogenesis 34(1):2-9. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgs382 PMID:23222815 PMCID:PMC3584950
  • Thomas R, McHale CM, Lan Q, Hubbard AE, Zhang L, Vermeulen R, Li G, Rappaport SM, Yin S, Rothman N, Smith MT. 2013. Global gene expression response of a population exposed to benzene: A pilot study exploring the use of RNA-sequencing technology. Environ Mol Mutagen 54(7):566-573. doi:10.1002/em.21801 PMID:23907980 PMCID:PMC4353497


  • Ji Z, Weldon RH, Marchetti F, Chen H, Li G, Xing C, Kurtovich E, Young SS, Schmid TE, Waidyanatha S, Rappaport SM, Zhang L, Eskenazi B. 2012. Comparison of aneuploidies of chromosomes 21, X, and Y in the blood lymphocytes and sperm of workers exposed to benzene. Environ Mol Mutagen 53(3):218-26. doi:10.1002/em.21683 PMID:22351378
  • Marchetti F, Eskenazi B, Weldon RH, Li G, Zhang L, Rappaport SM, Schmid TE, Xing C, Kurtovich E, Wyrobek AJ. 2012. Occupational exposure to benzene and chromosomal structural aberrations in the sperm of Chinese men. Environ Health Perspect 120(2):229-234. doi:10.1289/ehp.1103921 PMID:22086566 PMCID:PMC3279447
  • Zhang L, Lan Q, Ji Z, Li G, Shen M, Guo W, Hubbard AE, McHale CM, Rappaport SM, Hayes RB, Linet MS, Yin S, Smith MT, Rothman N, Vermeulen R. 2012. Leukemia-specific chromosomal loss detected in hematopoietic progenitor cells of benzene-exposed workers. Leukemia 26(12):2494-2498. doi:10.1038/leu.2012.143 PMID:22643707 PMCID:PMC3472034


  • Kang-Sickel JC, Butler MA, Frame L, Serdar B, Chao YE, Egeghy PP, Rappaport SM, Toennis CA, Li W, Borisova T, French JE, Nylander-French LA. 2011. The utility of naphthyl-keratin adducts as biomarkers for jet-fuel exposure. Biomarkers 16:590-599. doi:10.3109/1354750x.2011.611598 PMID:21961652 PMCID:PMC4174274
  • McHale CM, Zhang L, Lan Q, Vermeulen R, Li G, Hubbard AE, Porter KE, Thomas R, Portier CJ, Shen M, Rappaport SM, Yin S, Rothman N, Smith MT. 2011. Global gene expression profiling of a population exposed to a range of benzene levels. Environ Health Perspect 119:628-634. doi:10.1289/ehp.1002546 PMID:21147609 PMCID:PMC3094412
  • Smith MT, Zhang L, McHale CM, Skibola CF, Rappaport SM. 2011. Benzene, the exposome and future investigations of leukemia etiology. Chem Biol Interact 192(1-2):155-159. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2011.02.010 PMID:21333640 PMCID:PMC3461963
  • Whitehead T, Metayer C, Gunier RB, Ward MH, Nishioka M, Buffler PA, Rappaport SM. 2011. Determinants of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels in house dust. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 21(2):123-132. doi:10.1038/jes.2009.68 PMID:20040932 PMCID:PMC2891419
  • Zhang L, Lan Q, Guo W, Hubbard AE, Li G, Rappaport SM, McHale CM, Shen M, Vermeulen R, Yin S, Rothman N, Smith MT, Ji Z. 2011. Chromosome-wide aneuploidy study (CWAS) in workers exposed to an established leukemogen, benzene. Carcinogenesis 32:605-612. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgq286 PMID:21216845 PMCID:PMC3066415


  • Rappaport SM, Smith MT. 2010. Epidemiology. Environment and disease risks. Science 330:460-1. doi:10.1126/science.1192603 PMID:20966241 PMCID:PMC4841276
  • Xing C, Marchetti F, Li G, Weldon RH, Kurtovich E, Young SS, Schmid TE, Zhang L, Rappaport SM, Waidyanatha S, Wyrobek AJ, Eskenazi B. 2010. Benzene exposure near the US permissible limit is associated with sperm aneuploidy. Environ Health Perspect 118:833-839. doi:10.1289/ehp.0901531 PMID:20418200 PMCID:PMC2898861
  • Zhang L, McHale CM, Rothman N, Li G, Ji Z, Vermeulen R, Hubbard AE, Ren X, Shen M, Rappaport SM, North M, Skibola CF, Yin S, Vulpe CD, Chanock SJ, Smith MT, Lan Q. 2010. Systems biology of human benzene exposure. Chem Biol Interact 184(1-2):86-93. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2009.12.011 PMID:20026094 PMCID:PMC2846187
  • Zhang L, Tang X, Rothman N, Vermeulen R, Ji Z, Shen M, Qiu C, Guo W, Liu S, Reiss B, Freeman LB, Ge Y, Hubbard AE, Hua M, Blair AE, Galvan N, Ruan X, Alter BP, Xin KX, Li S, Moore LE, Kim S, Xie Y, Hayes RB, Azuma M, Hauptmann M, Xiong J, Stewart P, Li L, Rappaport SM, Huang H, Fraumeni JF, Smith MT, Lan Q. 2010. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde, hematotoxicity, and leukemia-specific chromosome changes in cultured myeloid progenitor cells. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19(1):80-88. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-0762 PMID:20056626 PMCID:PMC2974570


  • Lan Q, Zhang L, Shen M, Jo WJ, Vermeulen R, Li G, Vulpe CD, Lim S, Ren X, Rappaport SM, Berndt SI, Yeager M, Yuenger J, Hayes RB, Linet MS, Yin S, Chanock SJ, Smith MT, Rothman N. 2009. Large-scale evaluation of candidate genes identifies associations between DNA repair and genomic maintenance and development of benzene hematotoxicity. Carcinogenesis 30(1):50-58. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgn249 PMID:18978339 PMCID:PMC2639030
  • McHale CM, Zhang L, Lan Q, Li G, Hubbard AE, Forrest MS, Vermeulen R, Chen J, Shen M, Rappaport SM, Yin S, Smith MT, Rothman N. 2009. Changes in the peripheral blood transcriptome associated with occupational benzene exposure identified by cross-comparison on two microarray platforms. Genomics 93(4):343-349. doi:10.1016/j.ygeno.2008.12.006 PMID:19162166 PMCID:PMC2693268
  • Rappaport SM, Kim S, Lan Q, Vermeulen R, Waidyanatha S, Zhang L, Li G, Yin S, Hayes RB, Rothman N, Smith MT. 2009. Evidence that humans metabolize benzene via two pathways. Environ Health Perspect 117:946-952. doi:10.1289/ehp.0800510 PMID:19590688 PMCID:PMC2702411
  • Smith MT, Rappaport SM. 2009. Building exposure biology centers to put the E into "G x E" interaction studies. Environ Health Perspect 117(8):A334-5. doi:10.1289/ehp.12812 PMID:19672377 PMCID:PMC2721881
  • Sobus JR, Waidyanatha S, McClean MD, Herrick RF, Smith TJ, Garshick E, Laden F, Hart JE, Zheng Y, Rappaport SM. 2009. Urinary naphthalene and phenanthrene as biomarkers of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Occup Environ Med 66(2):99-104. doi:10.1136/oem.2008.041418 PMID:19017700 PMCID:PMC2633650
  • Whitehead T, Metayer C, Ward MH, Nishioka M, Gunier RB, Colt JS, Reynolds P, Selvin S, Buffler PA, Rappaport SM. 2009. Is house-dust nicotine a good surrogate for household smoking?. Am J Epidemiol 169(9):1113-1123. doi:10.1093/aje/kwp021 PMID:19299402 PMCID:PMC2727236


  • Sobus JR, Pleil JD, Madden CM, Funk WE, Hubbard HE, Rappaport SM. 2008. Identification of surrogate measures of diesel exhaust exposure in chamber study with human subjects. Environ Sci Technol 42:8822-8828. doi:10.1021/es800813v PMID:19192804
  • Waldyanatha S, Rappaport SM. 2008. Hemoglobin and albumin adducts of naphthalene-1,2-oxide, 1,2-naphthoqulnone and 1,4-naphthoquinone in Swiss Webster mice. Chem Biol Interact 172:105-114. PMID:18291356


  • Kim D, Andersen ME, Chao YE, Egeghy PP, Rappaport SM, Nylander-French LA. 2007. PBTK modeling demonstrates contribution of dermal and inhalation exposure components to end-exhaled breath concentrations of naphthalene. Environ Health Perspect 115(6):894-901. doi:10.1289/ehp.9778 PMID:17589597 PMCID:PMC1892111
  • Kim D, Andersen ME, Chao YE, Egeghy PP, Rappaport SM, Nylander-French LA. 2007. Prediction of human dermal and inhalation exposures to jet fuel by analysis of a PBTK model. Environ Health Perspect 115(6):894-901.
  • Kim S, Lan Q, Waidyanatha S, Chanock SJ, Johnson BA, Vermeulen R, Smith MT, Zhang L, Li G, Shen M, Yin S, Rothman N, Rappaport SM. 2007. Genetic polymorphisms and benzene metabolism in humans exposed to a wide range of air concentrations. Pharmacogenet Genomics 17(10):789-801. PMID:17885617
  • Lin Y, Vermeulen R, Tsai CH, Waidyanatha S, Lan Q, Rothman N, Smith MT, Zhang L, Shen M, Li G, Yin S, Kim S, Rappaport SM. 2007. Albumin adducts of electrophilic benzene metabolites in benzene-exposed and control workers. Environ Health Perspect 115(1):28-34. PMID:17366815
  • Meeker JD, Barr DB, Serdar B, Rappaport SM, Hauser R. 2007. Utility of urinary 1-naphthol and 2-naphthol levels to assess environmental carbaryl and naphthalene exposure in an epidemiology study. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 17(4):314-320. doi:10.1038/sj.jes.7500502 PMID:16721410


  • Chao YE, Kupper LL, Serdar B, Egeghy PP, Rappaport SM, Nylander-French LA. 2006. Dermal exposure to jet fuel JP-8 significantly contributes to the production of urinary naphthols in fuel-cell maintenance workers. Environ Health Perspect 114(2):182-185. PMID:16451852 PMCID:PMC1367829
  • Kim S, Vermeulen R, Waidyanatha S, Johnson BA, Lan Q, Rothman N, Smith MT, Zhang L, Li G, Shen M, Yin S, Rappaport SM. 2006. Using urinary biomarkers to elucidate dose-related patterns of human benzene metabolism. Carcinogenesis 27(4):772-81. PMID:16339183
  • Kim S, Vermeulen R, Waidyanatha S, Johnson BA, Lan Q, Smith MT, Zhang L, Li G, Shen M, Yin S, Rothman N, Rappaport SM. 2006. Modeling human metabolism of benzene following occupational and environmental exposures. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15(11):2246-52. PMID:17119053
  • Lin Y, McKelvey W, Waidyanatha S, Rappaport SM. 2006. Variability of albumin adducts of 1,4-benzoquinone, a toxic metabolite of benzene, in human volunteers. Biomarkers 11(1):14-27. doi:10.1080/13547500500382975 PMID:16484134
  • Pleil JD, Funk WE, Rappaport SM. 2006. Residual indoor contamination from world trade center rubble fires as indicated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon profiles. Environ Sci Technol 40(4):1172-1177. PMID:16572771
  • Serdar B, Tornero-Velez R, Echeverria D, Nylander-French LA, Kupper LL, Rappaport SM. 2006. Predictors of occupational exposure to styrene and styrene-7,8-oxide in the reinforced plastics industry. Occup Environ Med 63(10):707-12. PMID:16757507
  • Shen M, Lan Q, Zhang L, Chanock SJ, Li G, Vermeulen R, Rappaport SM, Guo W, Hayes RB, Linet MS, Yin S, Yeager M, Welch R, Forrest MS, Rothman N, Smith MT. 2006. Polymorphisms in genes involved in DNA double-strand break repair pathway and susceptibility to benzene-induced hematotoxicity. Carcinogenesis 27(10):2083-2089. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgl061 PMID:16728435
  • Vermeulen R, Lan Q, Li G, Rappaport SM, Kim S, van Wendel de Joode B, Shen M, Bohong X, Smith MT, Zhang L, Yin S, Rothman G. 2006. Assessment of dermal exposure to benzene and toluene in shoe manufacturing by activated carbon cloth patches. J Environ Monit 8(11):1143-8. PMID:17075621
  • Yokley K, Tran HT, Pekari K, Rappaport SM, Riihimaki V, Rothman N, Waidyanatha S, Schlosser PM. 2006. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling of benzene in humans: a Bayesian approach. Risk Anal 26(4):925-43. PMID:16948686


  • Henderson AP, Barnes ML, Bleasdale C, Cameron R, Clegg W, Heath SL, Lindstrom AB, Rappaport SM, Waidyanatha S, Watson WP, Golding BT. 2005. Reactions of benzene oxide with thiols including glutathione. Chem Res Toxicol 18(2):265-270. doi:10.1021/tx049781y PMID:15720131
  • Lan Q, Zhang L, Hakim F, Shen M, Memon S, Li G, Vermeulen R, Smith MT, Rappaport SM, Hayes RB, Linet MS, Yin S, Rothman N, Rabkin CS. 2005. Lymphocyte toxicity and T cell receptor excision circles in workers exposed to benzene. Chem Biol Interact 153-154:111-115. PMID:15935806
  • Lan Q, Zhang L, Shen M, Smith MT, Li G, Vermeulen R, Rappaport SM, Forrest MS, Hayes RB, Linet MS, Dosemeci M, Alter BP, Weinberg RS, Yin S, Yeager M, Welch R, Waidyanatha S, Kim S, Chanock SJ, Rothman N. 2005. Polymorphisms in cytokine and cellular adhesion molecule genes and susceptibility to hematotoxicity among workers exposed to benzene. Cancer Res 65(20):9574-9581. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-1419 PMID:16230423
  • Rappaport SM, Waidyanatha S, Yeowell-O'Connell K, Rothman N, Smith MT, Zhang L, Qu Q, Shore R, Li G, Yin S. 2005. Protein adducts as biomarkers of human benzene metabolism. Chem Biol Interact 153-154:103-109. PMID:15935805
  • Waidyanatha S, Rappaport SM. 2005. Investigation of cysteinyl protein adducts of benzene diolepoxide. Chem Biol Interact 153-154:261-266. PMID:15935825
  • Waidyanatha S, Sangaiah R, Rappaport SM. 2005. Characterization and quantification of cysteinyl adducts of benzene diol epoxide. Chem Res Toxicol 18(7):1178-1185. PMID:16022511
  • Wu R, Waidyanatha S, Henderson AP, Serdar B, Zheng Y, Rappaport SM. 2005. Determination of dihydroxynaphthalenes in human urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 826(1-2):206-213. doi:10.1016/j.jchromb.2005.08.022 PMID:16169295


  • Lan Q, Zhang L, Li G, Vermeulen R, Weinberg RS, Dosemeci M, Rappaport SM, Shen M, Alter BP, Wu Y, Kopp W, Waidyanatha S, Rabkin CS, Guo W, Chanock SJ, Hayes RB, Linet MS, Kim S, Yin S, Rothman N, Smith MT. 2004. Hematotoxicity in workers exposed to low levels of benzene. Science 306(5702):1774-1776. doi:10.1126/science.1102443 PMID:15576619 PMCID:PMC1256034
  • Landrigan PJ, Lioy PJ, Thurston G, Berkowitz GS, Chen L, Chillrud SN, Gavett SH, Georgopoulos PG, Geyh AS, Levin SM, Perera F, Rappaport SM, Small C. 2004. Health and environmental consequences of the world trade center disaster. Environ Health Perspect 112(6):731-739. PMID:15121517
  • Luderer U, Tornero-Velez R, Shay T, Rappaport SM, Heyer NJ, Echeverria D. 2004. Temporal association between serum prolactin concentration and exposure to styrene. Occup Environ Med 61(4):325-333. PMID:15031390
  • Pleil JD, Vette AF, Johnson BA, Rappaport SM. 2004. Air levels of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons after the World Trade Center disaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(32):11685-11688. PMID:15280534
  • Pleil JD, Vette AF, Johnson BA, Rappaport SM. 2004. Assaying particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from archived PM2.5 filters. J Chromatogr A 1033(1):9-17. PMID:15072286
  • Rappaport SM, Kupper LL. 2004. Variability of environmental exposures to volatile organic compounds. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 14(1):92-107. PMID:14726948
  • Rappaport SM, Waidyanatha S, Serdar B. 2004. Naphthalene and its biomarkers as measures of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. J Environ Monit 6(5):413-416. PMID:15152308
  • Serdar B, Egeghy PP, Gibson RL, Rappaport SM. 2004. Dose-dependent production of urinary naphthols among workers exposed to jet fuel (JP-8). Environ Health Perspect 46(3):234-244. PMID:15307122
  • Toraason M, Albertini R, Baynard S, Bigbee W, Blair AE, Boffetta P, Bonassi S, Chanock SJ, Christiani DC, Eastmond DA, Hanash S, Henry C, Kadlubar FF, Mirer F, Nebert DW, Rappaport SM, Rest K, Rothman N, Ruder AM, Savage R, Schulte PA, Siemiatycki J, Shields P, Smith MT, Tolbert PE, Vermeulen R, Vineis P, Wacholder S, Ward EM, Waters M. 2004. Applying new biotechnologies to the study of occupational cancer - A workshop summary. Environ Health Perspect 112(4):413-416. PMID:15033588
  • Vermeulen R, Li G, Lan Q, Dosemeci M, Rappaport SM, Bohong X, Smith MT, Zhang L, Hayes RB, Linet MS, Mu R, Wang L, Xu J, Yin S, Rothman N. 2004. Detailed exposure assessment for a molecular epidemiology study of benzene in two shoe factories in China. Ann Occup Hyg 48(2):105-116. PMID:14990432
  • Waidyanatha S, Rothman N, Li G, Smith MT, Yin S, Rappaport SM. 2004. Rapid determination of six urinary benzene metabolites in occupationally exposed and unexposed subjects. Anal Biochem 327(2):184-199. PMID:15051535
  • Waidyanatha S, Zheng Y, Serdar B, Rappaport SM. 2004. Albumin adducts of naphthalene metabolites as biomarkers of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13(1):117-124. PMID:14744742


  • Egeghy PP, Hauf-Cabalo L, Gibson RL, Rappaport SM. 2003. Benzene and naphthalene in air and breath as indicators of exposure to jet fuel. Occup Environ Med 60(12):969-976. PMID:14634191
  • Serdar B, Egeghy PP, Waidyanatha S, Gibson RL, Rappaport SM. 2003. Urinary biomarkers of exposure to jet fuel (JP-8). Environ Health Perspect 111(14):1760-1764. PMID:14594628
  • Serdar B, Waidyanatha S, Zheng Y, Rappaport SM. 2003. Simultaneous determination of urinary 1- and 2-naphthols, 3- and 9-phenanthrols, and 1-pyrenol in coke oven workers. Biomarkers 8(20:93-109. PMID:12775495
  • Tsai CH, Lin P, Troester MA, Rappaport SM. 2003. Formation and removal of pentachlorophenol-derived protein adducts in rodent liver under acute, multiple, and chronic dosing regimens. Toxicol Sci 73(1):26-35. PMID:12700421
  • Waidyanatha S, Zheng Y, Rappaport SM. 2003. Determination of polypyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine of coke oven workers by headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chem Biol Interact 145(2):165-174. PMID:12686493


  • Egeghy PP, Nylander-French LA, Gwin KK, Hertz-Picciotto I, Rappaport SM. 2002. Self-collected breath sampling for monitoring low-level benzene exposures among automobile mechanics. Ann Occup Hyg 46(5):489-500. PMID:12176763
  • Rappaport SM, Waidyanatha S, Qu Q, Shore R, Jin X, Cohen B, Chen L, Melikian AA, Li G, Yin S, Yan H, Xu B, Mu R, Li Y, Zhang X, Li K. 2002. Albumin adducts of benzene oxide and 1,4-benzoquinone as measures of human benzene metabolism. Cancer Res 62(5):1330-1337. PMID:11888901
  • Rappaport SM, Yeowell-O'Connell K, Smith MT, Dosemeci M, Hayes RB, Zhang L, Li G, Yin S, Rothman N. 2002. Non-linear production of benzene oxide-albumin adducts with human exposure to benzene. J Chromatogr A 778:367-374. PMID:12376141
  • Troester MA, Lindstrom AB, Waidyanatha S, Kupper LL, Rappaport SM. 2002. Stability of hemoglobin and albumin adducts of naphthalene oxide, 1,2-naphthoquinone, and 1,4-naphthoquinone. Toxicol Sci 68(2):314-321. PMID:12151627
  • Tsai CH, Lin P, Waidyanatha S, Rappaport SM. 2002. Fractionation of protein adducts in rats and mice dosed with[(14)C]pentachlorophenol. Arch Toxicol 76(11):628-633. PMID:12415425
  • Waidyanatha S, Troester MA, Lindstrom AB, Rappaport SM. 2002. Measurement of hemoglobin and albumin adducts of naphthalene-1,2-oxide, 1,2-naphthoquinone and 1,4-naphthoquinone after administration of naphthalene to F344 rats. Chem Biol Interact 141(3):189-210. PMID:12385719


  • Taylor DJ, Kupper LL, Rappaport SM, Lyles RH. 2001. A mixture model for occupational exposure mean testing with a limit of detection. Biometrics 57(3):681-699. PMID:11550915
  • Troester MA, Kupper LL, Rappaport SM. 2001. Comparison of non-linear and linear models for estimating haemoglobin adduct stability. Biomarkers 6(4):251-261. PMID:23889277
  • Tsai CH, Lin P, Waidyanatha S, Rappaport SM. 2001. Characterization of metabolic activation of pentachlorophenol to quinones and semiquinones in rodent liver. Chem Biol Interact 134(1):55-71. PMID:11248222
  • Waidyanatha S, Rothman N, Fustinoni S, Smith MT, Hayes RB, Bechtold WE, Dosemeci M, Li G, Yin S, Rappaport SM. 2001. Urinary benzene as a biomarker of exposure among occupationally exposed and unexposed subjects. Carcinogenesis 22:279-286. PMID:11181449
  • Weaver MA, Kupper LL, Taylor DJ, Kromhout H, Susi P, Rappaport SM. 2001. Simultaneous assessment of occupational exposures from multiple worker groups. Occupational Hygiene 45(7):525-542. PMID:11583655
  • Yeowell-O'Connell K, Rothman N, Waidyanatha S, Smith MT, Hayes RB, Li G, Bechtold WE, Dosemeci M, Zhang L, Yin S, Rappaport SM. 2001. Protein adducts of 1,4-benzoquinone and benzene oxide among smokers and nonsmokers exposed to benzene in China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 10:831-838. PMID:11489749


  • Egeghy PP, Tornero-Velez R, Rappaport SM. 2000. Environmental and biological monitoring of benzene during self-service automobile refueling. Environ Health Perspect 108:1195-1202. PMID:11133401
  • Troester MA, Lindstrom AB, Waidyanatha S, Kupper LL, Rappaport SM. 2000. Stability of hemoglobin and albumin adducts of benzene oxide and 1,4-benzoquinone after administration of benzene to F344 rats. Toxicol Sci 54:88-94. PMID:10746935


  • Lin P, Waidyanatha S, Pollack GM, Swenberg JA, Rappaport SM. 1999. Dose-specific production of chlorinated quinone and semiquinone adducts in rodent livers following administration of pentachlorophenol. Toxicol Sci 47(1):126-133. PMID:10048161
  • Lindstrom AB, Yeowell-O'Connell K, Waidyanatha S, McDonald TA, Rappaport SM. 1999. Investigation of benzene oxide in bone marrow and other tissues of F344 rats following metabolism of benzene in vitro and in vivo. Chem Biol Interact 122(1):41-58. PMID:10475614
  • Rappaport SM, Yeowell-O'Connell K. 1999. Protein adducts as dosimeters of human exposure to styrene, styrene-7, 8-oxide, and benzene. Toxicol Lett 108:117-126. PMID:10511253
  • Yeowell-O'Connell K, Rothman N, Smith MT, Hayes RB, Li G, Bechtold WE, Dosemeci M, Zhang L, Yin S, Rappaport SM. 1999. Hemoglobin adducts of benzene oxide in workers exposed to high levels of benzene in China. In: Proceedings of the Ninetieth Annual Meeting of the (AACR) American Association of Cancer Research, 1999. pp.251.
  • Yeowell-O'Connell K, Rothman N, Waidyanatha S, Smith MT, Hayes RB, Li G, Bechtold WE, Dosemeci M, Zhang L, Yin S, Rappaport SM. 1999. Albumin adducts of benzene oxide, 1, 2- and 1, 4 benzoquinones in benzene exposed workers. In: Proceedings of the Ninetieth Annual Meeting of the (AACR) American Association of Cancer Research, 1999. pp.477.


  • Lindstrom AB, Yeowell-O'Connell K, Waidyanatha S, McDonald TA, Golding BT, Rappaport SM. 1998. Formation of hemoglobin and albumin adducts of benzene oxide in mouse, rat, and human blood. Chem Res Toxicol 11:302-310. PMID:9548800
  • Waidyanatha S, Yeowell-O'Connell K, Rappaport SM. 1998. A new assay for albumin and hemoglobin adducts of 1,2- and 1,4-benzoquinones. Chem Biol Interact 115:117-139. PMID:9826945
  • Yeowell-O'Connell K, Rothman N, Smith MT, Hayes RB, Li G, Waidyanatha S, Dosemeci M, Zhang L, Yin S, Titenko-Holland N, Rappaport SM. 1998. Hemoglobin and albumin adducts of benzene oxide among workers exposed to high levels of benzene. Carcinogenesis 19(9):1565-1571. PMID:9771926
  • Yeowell-O'Connell K, Rothman N, Waidyanatha S, Smith MT, Hayes RB, Li G, Bechtold WE, Dosemeci M, Zhang L, Yin S, Rappaport SM. 1998. Albumin adducts of benzene oxide, 1, 2-and 1, 4 benzoquinones in benzene exposed workers. Chapter 39in: Proceedings of the Eighty Nineth Annual Meeting of the (AACR) American Association for Cancer Research, March 28th-April 1st, 1998. New Oreleans, LA. pp.477.


  • Lin P, Waidyanatha S, Pollack GM, Rappaport SM. 1997. Dosimetry of chlorinated quinone metabolites of pentachlorophenol in the livers of rats and mice based upon measurement of protein adducts. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 145(2):399-408. PMID:9266814
  • Lindstrom AB, Yeowell-O'Connell K, Waidyanatha S, Golding BT, Tornero-Velez R, Rappaport SM. 1997. Measurement of benzene oxide in the blood of rats following administration of benzene. Carcinogenesis 18:1637-1641. PMID:9276641


  • Lin P, Waidyanatha S, Rappaport SM. 1996. Investigation of liver binding of pentachlorophenol based upon measurement of protein adducts. Biomarkers 1:232-243. PMID:23888990
  • Rappaport SM, McDonald TA, Yeowell-O'Connell K. 1996. The use of protein adducts to investigate the disposition of reactive metabolites of benzene. Environ Health Perspect 104(S6):1235-1237. PMID:9118898
  • Waidyanatha S, Lin P, Rappaport SM. 1996. Characterization of chlorinated adducts of hemoglobin and albumin following administration of pentachlorophenol to rats. Chem Res Toxicol 9(3):647-653. PMID:8728511
  • Yeowell-O'Connell K, McDonald TA, Rappaport SM. 1996. Analysis of hemoglobin adducts of benzene oxide by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anal Biochem 237:49-55. PMID:8660536
  • Yeowell-O'Connell K, Rothman N, Wang Y, Hayes RB, Li G, Bechtold WE, Dosemeci M, Zhang L, Yin S, Rappaport SM. 1996. Hemoglobin adducts of benzene oxide in workers exposed to high levels of benzene in China. Chapter 37in: Proceedings of the Eighty Seventh Annual Meeting of the (AACR) American Association of Cancer Research, 1996. pp.251.


  • Rappaport SM, Symanski E, Yager JW, Kupper LL. 1995. The relationship between environmental monitoring and biological markers in exposure assessment. Environ Health Perspect 103(supp.3):49-53. PMID:7635112
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