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Your Environment. Your Health.

Project Publications: Texas A&M University: Endocrine Disrupters

Superfund Research Program

Endocrine Disrupters

Project Leader: Stephen H. Safe
Grant Number: P42ES004917
Funding Period: 2000-2008

Project-Specific Links




  • Kim J, Erikson D, Burghardt RC, Spencer T, Wu G, Bayless K, Johnson G, Bazer F. 2010. Secreted phosphoprotein 1 binds integrins to initiate multiple cell signaling pathways, including FRAP1/mTOR, to support attachment and force-generated migration of trophectoderm cells. Matrix Biology 29:369-382. doi:10.1016/j.matbio.2010.04.001 PMID:20385232


  • Barhoumi R, Catania JM, Parrish AR, Awooda I, Tiffany-Castiglioni E, Safe SH, Burghardt RC. 2009. Multiphoton spectral analysis of benzo[a]pyrene uptake and metabolism in breast epithelial cell lines. J Toxicol Sci 34(1):13-25. doi:10.2131/jts.34.13 PMID:19182432 PMCID:PMC2739812
  • Martinez JG, Huang J, Burghardt RC, Barhoumi R, Carroll RJ. 2009. Use of multiple singular value decompositions to analyze complex intracellular calcium ion signals. Annals of Applied Statistics 3(4):1467-1492. doi:10.1214/09-aoas253 PMID:20428493 PMCID:PMC2859732
  • Wu F, Ivanov I, Safe SH. 2009. Role of SP transcription factors in hormone-dependent modulation of genes in MCF-7 breast cancer cells: microarray and RNA interference studies. J Mol Endocrinol 42(1):19-33. doi:10.1677/JME-08-0088 PMID:18952783 PMCID:PMC2642616
  • Zhang S, Lei P, Liu X, Li X, Walker K, Kotha L, Rowlands C, Safe SH. 2009. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor as a target for estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer chemotherapy. Endocr Relat Cancer 16(3):835-844. doi:10.1677/ERC-09-0054 PMID:19447902 PMCID:PMC2766348


  • Higgins KJ, Liu S, Abdelrahim M, Vanderlaag K, Liu X, Porter WW, Metz RP, Safe SH. 2008. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 expression is down-regulated by 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 breast cancer cells by estrogen receptor alpha/Sp proteins. Mol Endocrinol 22(2):388-402. doi:10.1210/me.2007-0319 PMID:18006642 PMCID:PMC2234589
  • Safe SH, Kim K. 2008. Non-classical genomic estrogen receptor (ER)/specificity protein and ER/activating protein-1 signaling pathways. J Mol Endocrinol 41(5):263-275. doi:10.1677/JME-08-0103 PMID:18772268 PMCID:PMC2582054
  • Wu F, Khan S, Wu Q, Barhoumi R, Burghardt RC, Safe SH. 2008. Ligand structure-dependent activation of estrogen receptor alpha/Sp by estrogens and xenoestrogens. Psychiatr Pol 110(1-2):104-115. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2008.02.008 PMID:18400491 PMCID:PMC2519242
  • Wu F, Kim K, Martin J, Safe SH. 2008. In vivo profiling of estrogen receptor/specificity protein-dependent transactivation. Endocrinology 149(11):5696-5705. doi:10.1210/en.2008-0720 PMID:18635651 PMCID:PMC2584598
  • Zhang S, Safe SH. 2008. Ligand-dependent interactions of the Ah receptor with coactivators in a mammalian two-hybrid assay. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 227(2):196-206. PMID:18048071


  • Khan S, Liu S, Stoner M, Safe SH. 2007. Cobaltous chloride and hypoxia inhibit aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated responses in breast cancer cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 223(1):28-38. PMID:17599377
  • Khan S, Wu F, Liu S, Safe SH, Wu Q. 2007. Role of specificity protein transcription factors in estrogen-induced gene expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. J Mol Endocrinol 39(4):289-304. doi:10.1677/JME-07-0043 PMID:17909268
  • Safe SH, Khan S, Wu F, Li X. 2007. Chemical-induced estrogenicity. In: Veterinary Toxicology: Basic and Clinical Principles. Elsevier, New York,
  • Wu F, Safe SH. 2007. Differential activation of wild-type estrogen receptor alpha and C-terminal deletion mutants by estrogens, antiestrogens and xenoestrogens in breast cancer cells. Psychiatr Pol 103(1):1-9. PMID:17141713
  • Gupta RC, ed. 2007. Veterinary Toxicology: Basic and Clinical Principles Elsevier, New York,


  • Abdelrahim M, Ariazi E, Kim K, Khan S, Barhoumi R, Burghardt RC, Liu S, Hill DS, Finnell RH, Wlodarczyk BJ, Jordan VC, Safe SH. 2006. 3-Methylcholanthrene and other aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists directly activate estrogen receptor alpha. Cancer Res 66(4):2459-2467. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-3132 PMID:16489053
  • Barhoumi R, Awooda I, Mouneimne Y, Safe SH, Burghardt RC. 2006. Effects of benzo-a-pyrene on oxytocin-induced Ca2+ oscillations in myometrial cells. Toxicol Lett 165(2):133-141. PMID:16567066
  • Khan S, Konstantinov A, Chittim B, McAlees A, Yeo B, Safe SH. 2006. Structure-dependent Ah receptor agonist activities of chlorinated biphenylenes. Toxicol In Vitro 20(7):1234-1237. PMID:16759834
  • Liu S, Abdelrahim M, Khan S, Ariazi E, Jordan VC, Safe SH. 2006. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists directly activate estrogen receptor alpha in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Biol Chem 387(9):1209-1213. doi:10.1515/BC.2006.149 PMID:16972788
  • Safe SH. 2006. Polychlorinated biphenyls. In: Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 4th Edition. Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, PA.
  • Safe SH, Papineni S. 2006. The role of xenoestrogenic compounds in the development of breast cancer. Trends Pharmacol Sci 27(8):447-454. PMID:16822555


  • Castro-Rivera E, Safe SH. 2003. 17 beta-estradiol- and 4-hydroxytamoxifen-induced transactivation in breast, endometrial and liver cancer cells is dependent on ER-subtype, cell and promoter context. Psychiatr Pol 84:23-31. PMID:12648521
  • Safe SH. 2003. Toxicology and risk assessment of POPs. In: The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany. pp.224-235.
  • Safe SH, Wormke M. 2003. Inhibitory aryl hydrocarbon receptor-estrogen receptor alpha cross-talk and mechanisms of action. Chem Res Toxicol 16(7):807-816. doi:10.1021/tx034036r PMID:12870882
  • Wormke M, Stoner M, Saville B, Walker K, Abdelrahim M, Burghardt RC, Safe SH. 2003. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediates degradation of estrogen receptor alpha through activation of proteasomes. Mol Cell Biol 23(6):1842-1855. PMID:12612060
  • Zhang S, Qin C, Safe SH. 2003. Flavonoids as aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists/antagonists: effects of structure and cell context. Environ Health Perspect 111(16):1877-1882. PMID:14644660


  • Barhoumi R, Mouneimne Y, Awooda I, Safe SH, Donnelly KC, Burghardt RC. 2002. Characterization of calcium oscillations in normal and benzo[a]pyrene-treated clone 9 cells. Toxicol Sci 68(2):444-450. PMID:12151640
  • Safe SH. 2002. Environmental estrogens: roles in male reproductive tract problems and in breast cancer. Rev Environ Health 17(4):253-262. PMID:12611468
  • Safe SH. 2002. Exposure to POPs and other congeners. In: Biomarkers of Environmentally Associated Disease: Technologies, Concepts, and Perspectives. CRC Press Company, Boca Raton, FL. pp.455-470.
  • Safe SH, Pallaroni L, Yoon K, Gaido KW, Ross S, McDonnell DP. 2002. Problems for risk assessment of endocrine-active estrogenic compounds. Environ Health Perspect 110(Suppl6):925-929. PMID:12634121
  • Safe SH, Yoon K, Castro-Rivera E, Pallaroni L, Gaido KW. 2002. Ligand structure-dependent activation of the estrogen receptor by xenoestrogens. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed)


  • Lee J, Safe SH. 2001. Involvement of a post-transcriptional mechanism in the inhibition of CYP1A1 expression by resveratrol in breast cancer cells. Biochem Pharmacol 62(8):1113-1124. doi:10.1016/S0006-2952(01)00763-8 PMID:11597580
  • Safe SH, Pallaroni L, Yoon K, Gaido KW, Ross S, Saville B, McDonnell DP. 2001. Toxicology of environmental estrogens. Reproduction, Fertility and Development 13:307-315. PMID:11800169
  • Waters KM, Safe SH, Gaido KW. 2001. Differential gene expression in response to methoxychlor and estradiol through ERalpha, ERbeta, and AR in reproductive tissues of female mice. Toxicol Sci 63:47-56. PMID:11509743
  • Yoon K, Pallaroni L, Stoner M, Gaido KW, Safe SH. 2001. Differential activation of wild-type and variant forms of estrogen receptor alpha by synthetic and natural estrogenic compounds using a promoter containing three estrogen-responsive elements. Psychiatr Pol 78(1):25-32. PMID:11530281


  • Barhoumi R, Mouneimne Y, Ramos KS, Safe SH, Phillips TD, Centonze VE, Ainley C, Gupta MS, Burghardt RC. 2000. Analysis of Benzo[a]pyrene partitioning and cellular homeostasis in a rat liver cell line. Toxicol Sci 53:264-270. PMID:10696774
  • Gaido KW, Maness SC, McDonnell DP, Dehal SS, Kupfer D, Safe SH. 2000. Interaction of methoxychlor and related compounds with estrogen receptor alpha and beta, and androgen receptor: structure-activity studies. Mol Pharmacol 58(4):852-858. PMID:10999957
  • Kester MH, Bulduk S, Tibboel D, Meinl W, Glatt H, Falany CN, Coughtrie MW, Bergman A, Safe SH, Kuipper GG, Schuur AG, Brouwer A, Visser TJ. 2000. Potent inhibition of estrogen sulfotransferase by hydroxylated PCB metabolites: a novel pathway explaining the estrogenic activity of PCBs. Endocrinology 141(5):1897-1900. doi:10.1210/endo.141.5.7530 PMID:10803601
  • Lee J, Safe SH. 2000. Interactions of resveratrol and TCDD in human breast cancer cells. Organohalogen Compounds 49:277-280.
  • Safe SH. 2000. Bisphenol A and related endocrine disrupters. Toxicol Sci 56(2):251-252. PMID:10910979
  • Safe SH. 2000. Endocrine Disruptors: New Toxic Menace?. In: Earth Report 2000: Revisiting the True State of the Planet. McGraw Hill, New York, NY. pp.189-202.
  • Safe SH. 2000. Endocrine disruptors and human health - is there a problem: an update. Environ Health Perspect 108(6):487-493. PMID:10856020
  • Safe SH. 2000. Toxicology of persistent organic pollutants. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 102:52-53.
  • Safe SH. 2000. Xenoestrogens and human health. Is there a problem? The argument against. Progr. Environmental Science 21:21-30.
  • Yoon K, Pallaroni L, Ramamoorthy K, Gaido KW, Safe SH. 2000. Ligand structure-dependent differences in activation of estrogen receptor alpha in human HepG2 liver and U2 osteogenic cancer cell lines. Mol Cell Endocrinol 162(1-2):211-220. PMID:10854714
  • Aggett PJ, Kuiper HA, eds. 2000. Reproductive effects: endocrine disruption. In: Risk Assessment in the Food Chain of Children. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series, Paediatric Programme, Nestec Ltd. Vevey/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.


  • Gaido KW, Leonard LS, Maness SC, Hall JM, McDonnell DP, Saville B, Safe SH. 1999. Differential interaction of the methoxychlor metabolite 2,2-bis-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane with estrogen receptors alpha and beta. Endocrinology 140(12):5746-5753. doi:10.1210/endo.140.12.7191 PMID:10579340
  • Safe SH. 1999. Environmental estrogens. In: Encyclopedia of Reproduction, Vol 4. Academic Press, pp.1100-1103.
  • Marquardt H, Schafer SG, Welsch F, eds. 1999. Toxic equivalency factors and their use in hazard and risk assessment. In: Toxicology. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. pp.1191-1197.


  • Li X, Zhang S, Safe SH. 1983. [Central effect of thyroliberin (TRH)]. Psychiatr Pol 17(1):77-84. PMID:16413991
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