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Project Publications: University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill: Elucidating Mechanisms of Heavy Metal-Induced Toxicity and Disease

Superfund Research Program

Elucidating Mechanisms of Heavy Metal-Induced Toxicity and Disease

Project Leader: Rebecca C. Fry
Grant Number: P42ES005948
Funding Period: 2011-2018
View this project in the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT)

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  • Yelton S, George A, Tomlinson MS, Bommarito P, Fry RC, Gray K. 2023. Communicating results of drinking water tests from private wells: Designing report-back materials to facilitate understanding. J Environ Health 85(8):8-14. PMID:37621302 PMCID:PMC10448603


  • Freedman AN, Eaves LA, Rager JE, Gavino-Lopez N, Smeester L, Bangma J, Santos HP, Joseph RM, Kuban KC, O'Shea TM, Fry RC. 2022. The placenta epigenome-brain axis: placental epigenomic and transcriptomic responses that preprogram cognitive impairment. Epigenomics 14(15):897-911. doi:10.2217/epi-2022-0061 PMID:36073148
  • Griggs JL, Chi L, Hanley NM, Kohan M, Herbin-Davis K, Thomas DJ, Lu K, Fry RC, Bradham KD. 2022. Bioaccessibility of arsenic from contaminated soils and alteration of the gut microbiome in an in vitro gastrointestinal model. Environ Pollut 309:doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2022.119753 PMID:35835276


  • Beck R, Chandi M, Kanke M, Styblo M, Sethupathy P. 2019. Arsenic is more potent than cadmium or manganese in disrupting the INS-1 beta cell microRNA landscape. Arch Toxicol doi:10.1007/s00204-019-02574-8 PMID:31555879
  • Bommarito P, Xu X, Gonzalez-Horta C, Sanchez-Ramirez B, Ballinas-Casarrubias L, Luna RS, Perez SR, Hernandez-Avila JE, Garcia-Vargas G, Del Razo LM, Styblo M, Mendez MA, Fry RC. 2019. One-carbon metabolism nutrient intake and the association between body mass index and urinary arsenic metabolites in adults in the Chihuahua cohort. Environ Int 123:292-300. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2018.12.004 PMID:30553202 PMCID:PMC6369528
  • Fry RC, Bangma J, Szilagyi JT, Rager JE. 2019. Developing novel in vitro methods for the risk assessment of developmental and placental toxicants in the environment. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 378:12. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2019.114635 PMID:31233757 PMCID:PMC6684208
  • Johnson J, Robinson S, Smeester L, Fry RC, Boggess K, Vora NL. 2019. Ubiquitous identification of inorganic arsenic in a cohort of second trimester amniotic fluid in women with preterm and term births. Reprod Toxicol 87:97-99. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2019.05.061 PMID:31128209
  • Meakin C, Martin EM, Szilagyi JT, Nylander-French LA, Fry RC. 2019. Inorganic Arsenic as an Endocrine Disruptor: Modulation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Pathway in Placental Cells via CpG Methylation. Chem Res Toxicol 32(3):493-499. doi:10.1021/acs.chemrestox.8b00352 PMID:30746931
  • Tomlinson MS, Bommarito P, George A, Yelton S, Cable P, Coyte R, Karr J, Vengosh A, Gray K, Fry RC. 2019. Assessment of inorganic contamination of private wells and demonstration of effective filter-based reduction: A pilot-study in Stokes County, North Carolina. Environ Res 177:doi:10.1016/j.envres.2019.108618 PMID:31419714 PMCID:PMC6717535


  • Adebambo OA, Shea D, Fry RC. 2018. Cadmium disrupts signaling of the hypoxia-inducible (HIF) and transforming growth factor (TGF-beta) pathways in placental JEG-3 trophoblast cells via reactive oxygen species. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 342:108-115. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2018.01.010 PMID:29408318
  • Balik-Meisner M, Truong L, Scholl EH, La Du JK, Tanguay RL, Reif DM. 2018. Elucidating gene-by-environment interactions associated with differential susceptibility to chemical exposure. Environ Health Perspect 126:8. doi:10.1289/ehp2662 PMID:29968567
  • Fry RC, Martin EM. 2018. Environmental influences on the epigenome: exposure- associated DNA methylation in human populations. Annu Rev Public Health 39:303-333. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-014629 PMID:29328878
  • Smeester L, Fry RC. 2018. Long-Term Health Effects and Underlying Biological Mechanisms of Developmental Exposure to Arsenic. Curr Environ Health Rep 5(1):134-144. doi:10.1007/s40572-018-0184-1 PMID:29411302
  • Tilley SK, Martin EM, Smeester L, Joseph RM, Kuban KC, Heeren T, Dammann OU, O'Shea TM, Fry RC. 2018. Placental CpG methylation of infants born extremely preterm predicts cognitive impairment later in life. PLoS One 13:16. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0193271 PMID:29513726 PMCID:PMC5841757
  • To K, Fry RC, Reif DM. 2018. Characterizing the effects of missing data and evaluating imputation methods for chemical prioritization applications using ToxPi. BioData Min 11:12. doi:10.1186/s13040-018-0169-5 PMID:29942350 PMCID:PMC5998548


  • Bommarito P, Martin EM, Fry RC. 2017. Effects of prenatal exposure to endocrine disruptors and toxic metals on the fetal epigenome. Epigenomics 9:333-350. doi:10.2217/epi-2016-0112 PMID:28234024
  • Bommarito P, Martin EM, Smeester L, Palys T, Baker E, Karagas MR, Fry RC. 2017. Fetal-sex dependent genomic responses in the circulating lymphocytes of arsenic-exposed pregnant women in New Hampshire. Reprod Toxicol 73:184-195. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2017.07.023 PMID:28793237
  • Brooks SA, Fry RC. 2017. Cadmium inhibits placental trophoblast cell migration via miRNA regulation of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) pathway. Food Chem Toxicol 109:721-726. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2017.07.059 PMID:28774740 PMCID:PMC5656529
  • Franceschini N, Fry RC, Balakrishnan P, Navas-Acien A, Oliver-Williams C, Howard AG, Cole SA, Haack KW, Lange EM, Howard BV, Best LG, Francesconi KA, Umans JG, Tellez-Plaza M. 2017. Cadmium body burden and increased blood pressure in middle-aged American Indians: the Strong Heart Study. J Hum Hypertens 31(3):225-230. doi:10.1038/jhh.2016.67 PMID:27629244 PMCID:PMC5299034
  • Huang MC, Douillet C, Su M, Zhou K, Wu T, Chen W, Galanko JA, Drobna Z, Saunders RJ, Martin EM, Fry RC, Jia W, Styblo M. 2017. Metabolomic profiles of arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase knockout mice: effect of sex and arsenic exposure. Arch Toxicol 91(1):189-202. doi:10.1007/s00204-016-1676-0 PMID:26883664 PMCID:PMC4987274
  • Laine JE, Bailey KA, Olshan A, Smeester L, Drobna Z, Styblo M, Douillet C, Garcia-Vargas G, Rubio-Andrade M, Pathmasiri W, McRitchie S, Sumner SJ, Fry RC. 2017. Neonatal metabolomic profiles related to prenatal arsenic exposure. Environ Sci Technol 51(1):625-633. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b04374 PMID:27997141
  • Martin EM, Smeester L, Bommarito P, Grace MR, Boggess K, Kuban K, Karagas MR, Marsit CJ, O'Shea TM, Fry RC. 2017. Sexual epigenetic dimorphism in the human placenta: implications for susceptibility during the prenatal period. Epigenomics 9(3):267-278. doi:10.2217/epi-2016-0132 PMID:28234023 PMCID:PMC5331919
  • Martin EM, Styblo M, Fry RC. 2017. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying arsenic-associated diabetes mellitus: a perspective of the current evidence. Epigenomics 9(5):doi:10.2217/epi-2016-0097 PMID:28470093 PMCID:PMC5480787
  • Rager JE, Auerbach SS, Chappell G, Martin EM, Thompson CM, Fry RC. 2017. Benchmark Dose Modeling Estimates of the Concentrations of Inorganic Arsenic That Induce Changes to the Neonatal Transcriptome, Proteome, and Epigenome in a Pregnancy Cohort. Chem Res Toxicol 30(10):1911-1920. doi:10.1021/acs.chemrestox.7b00221
  • Smeester L, Bommarito P, Martin EM, Recio-Vega R, Gonzalez-Cortes, Olivas-Calderon E, Lantz RC, Fry RC. 2017. Chronic early childhood exposure to arsenic is associated with a TNF-mediated proteomic signaling response. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 52:183-187. doi:10.1016/j.etap.2017.04.007 PMID:28433805
  • Smeester L, Martin EM, Cable P, Bodnar WM, Boggess K, Vora NL, Fry RC. 2017. Toxic metals in amniotic fluid and altered gene expression in cell‐free fetal RNA. Prenat Diagn 37(13):1364-1366. doi:10.1002/pd.5183 PMID:29111618 PMCID:PMC5766286
  • Tilley SK, Joseph RM, Kuban KC, Dammann OU, O'Shea TM, Fry RC. 2017. Genomic biomarkers of prenatal intrauterine inflammation in umbilical cord tissue predict later life neurological outcomes. PLoS One 12(5):e0176953. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0176953 PMID:28493900 PMCID:PMC5426658
  • Tilley SK, Reif DM, Fry RC. 2017. Incorporating ToxCast and Tox21 datasets to rank biological activity of chemicals at Superfund sites in North Carolina. Environ Int 101:19-26. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2016.10.006 PMID:28153528 PMCID:PMC5351294
  • Tomlinson MS, Bommarito P, Martin EM, Smeester L, Fichorova RN, Onderdonk AB, Kuban KC, O'Shea TM, Fry RC. 2017. Microorganisms in the human placenta are associated with altered CpG methylation of immune and inflammation-related genes. PLoS One 12:13. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0188664 PMID:29240761 PMCID:PMC5730116
  • Vora NL, Smeester L, Boggess K, Fry RC. 2017. Investigating the role of fetal gene expression in preterm birth. Reprod Sci 24:824-828. doi:10.1177/1933719116670038 PMID:27678095


  • Bailey KA, Smith AH, Tokar EJ, Graziano JH, Kim KW, Navasumrit P, Ruchirawat K, Thiantanawat A, Suk WA, Fry RC. 2016. Mechanisms underlying latent disease risk associated with early-life arsenic exposure: current research trends and scientific gaps. Environ Health Perspect 124(2):170-175. doi:10.1289/ehp.1409360 PMID:26115410 PMCID:PMC4749078
  • Bommarito P, Fry RC. 2016. Developmental windows of susceptibility to inorganic arsenic: a survey of current toxicologic and epidemiologic data. Toxicol Res (Camb) 5:1503-1511. doi:10.1039/c6tx00234j
  • Brooks SA, Martin EM, Smeester L, Grace MR, Boggess K, Fry RC. 2016. miRNAs as common regulators of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β pathway in the preeclamptic placenta and cadmium-treated trophoblasts: Links between the environment, the epigenome and preeclampsia. Food Chem Toxicol 98(PtA):50-57. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2016.06.023 PMID:27375191 PMCID:PMC5156314
  • Chitforoushzadeh Z, Ye Z, Sheng Z, LaRue S, Fry RC, Lauffenburger DA, Janes KA. 2016. TNF-insulin crosstalk at the transcription factor GATA6 is revealed by a model that links signaling and transcriptomic data tensors. Sci Signal 9(431):ra59. doi:10.1126/scisignal.aad3373 PMID:27273097 PMCID:PMC4914393
  • Drobna Z, Martin EM, Kim K, Smeester L, Bommarito P, Rubio-Andrade M, Garcia-Vargas GG, Styblo M, Zou F, Fry RC. 2016. Analysis of maternal polymorphisms in arsenic (+3 oxidation state)-methyltransferase AS3MT and fetal sex in relation to arsenic metabolism and infant birth outcomes: Implications for risk analysis. Reprod Toxicol 61:28-38. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2016.02.017 PMID:26928318 PMCID:PMC4970429
  • Harrington JM, Young DJ, Fry RC, Weber FX, Sumner S, Levine KE. 2016. Validation of a metallomics analysis of placenta tissue by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Biol Trace Elem Res 169(2):164-173. doi:10.1007/s12011-015-0431-3 PMID:26155965 PMCID:PMC4763796
  • Laine JE, Fry RC. 2016. A systems toxicology-based approach reveals biological pathways dysregulated by prenatal arsenic exposure. Ann Glob Health 82(1):189-196. doi:10.1016/j.aogh.2016.01.015 PMID:27325076 PMCID:PMC4989910
  • Martin EM, Clapp PW, Rebuli ME, Pawlak EA, Glista-Baker E, Benowitz NL, Fry RC, Jaspers I. 2016. E-cigarette use results in suppression of immune and inflammatory-response genes in nasal epithelial cells similar to cigarette smoke. Am J Physiol 311(1):L135-L144. doi:10.1152/ajplung.00170.2016 PMID:27288488 PMCID:PMC4967187
  • Martin EM, Fry RC. 2016. A cross-study analysis of prenatal exposures to environmental contaminants and the epigenome: support for stress-responsive transcription factor occupancy as a mediator of gene-specific CpG methylation patterning. Environ Epigenet 2(1):doi:10.1093/eep/dvv011 PMID:27066266 PMCID:PMC4824001
  • Mendez MA, Gonzalez-Horta C, Sanchez-Ramirez B, Ballinas-Casarrubias L, Ceron RH, Morales DV, Baeza Terrazas FA, Ishida MC, Gutierrez-Torres DS, Saunders RJ, Drobna Z, Fry RC, Buse JB, Loomis D, Garcia-Vargas GG, Styblo M. 2016. Chronic exposure to arsenic and markers of cardiometabolic risk: a cross-sectional study in Chihuahua, Mexico. Environ Health Perspect 124(1):104-111. doi:10.1289/ehp.1408742 PMID:26068977 PMCID:PMC4710594
  • Sollome JJ, Martin EM, Sethupathy P, Fry RC. 2016. Environmental contaminants and microRNA regulation: transcription factors as regulators of toxicant-altered microRNA expression. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 312:61-66. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2016.06.009 PMID:27292125 PMCID:PMC5145741
  • Vora NL, Smeester L, Boggess K, Fry RC. 2016. Increased fetal inflammatory gene expression in cell-free fetal RNA is associated with earlier gestational age at birth. Journal of Women's Health 25:977-978.
  • Xu X, Drobna Z, Voruganti VS, Barron K, Gonzalez-Horta C, Sanchez-Ramirez B, Ballinas-Casarrubias L, Ceron RH, Morales DV, Baeza Terrazas FA, Ishida MC, Gutierrez-Torres DS, Saunders RJ, Crandell J, Fry RC, Loomis D, Garcia-Vargas G, Del Razo LM, Styblo M, Mendez MA. 2016. Association between variants in arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltranserase (AS3MT) and urinary metabolites of inorganic arsenic: role of exposure level. Toxicol Sci 153(1):112-123. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfw112 PMID:27370415 PMCID:PMC5808745
  • Zabinski JW, Garcia-Vargas GG, Rubio-Andrade M, Fry RC, MacDonald Gibson J. 2016. Advancing dose-response assessment methods for environmental regulatory impact analysis: a Bayesian belief network approach applied to inorganic arsenic. Environ Sci Technol Lett 3(5):200-204. doi:10.1021/acs.estlett.6b00076 PMID:27747248 PMCID:PMC5063306


  • Adebambo OA, Ray PD, Shea D, Fry RC. 2015. Toxicological responses of environmental mixtures: Environmental metal mixtures display synergistic induction of metal-responsive and oxidative stress genes in placental cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 289(3):534-541. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2015.10.005 PMID:26472158 PMCID:PMC4763604
  • Edwards SE, Maxson P, Miranda ML, Fry RC. 2015. Cadmium levels in a North Carolina cohort: Identifying risk factors for elevated levels during pregnancy. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 25(4):427-432. doi:10.1038/jes.2014.53 PMID:25073434 PMCID:PMC4312255
  • Gona S, Sanders AP, Miranda ML, Fry RC. 2015. Prenatal exposure to cadmium and cotinine and CpG island DNA methylation in mother-infant pairs. Genom Data 5:378-380. doi:10.1016/j.gdata.2015.07.001 PMID:26295018 PMCID:PMC4538703
  • Laine JE, Bailey KA, Rubio-Andrade M, Olshan A, Smeester L, Drobna Z, Herring AH, Styblo M, Garcia-Vargas GG, Fry RC. 2015. Maternal arsenic exposure, arsenic methylation efficiency, and birth outcomes in the Biomarkers of Exposure to ARsenic (BEAR) pregnancy cohort in Mexico. Environ Health Perspect 123(2):186-192. doi:10.1289/ehp.1307476 PMID:25325819 PMCID:PMC4314242
  • Laine JE, Ray PD, Bodnar WM, Cable PH, Boggess K, Offenbacher S, Fry RC. 2015. Placental cadmium levels are associated with increased preeclampsia risk. PLoS One 10(9):e0139341. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0139341 PMID:26422011 PMCID:PMC4589375
  • Martin EA, Gonzalez-Horta C, Rager JE, Bailey KA, Sanchez-Ramirez B, Ballinas-Casarrubias L, Ishida MC, Gutierrez-Torres DS, Ceron RH, Morales DV, Baeza Terrazas FA, Saunders RJ, Drobna Z, Mendez MA, Buse JB, Loomis D, Jia W, Garcia-Vargas GG, Del Razo LM, Styblo M, Fry RC. 2015. Metabolomic characteristics of arsenic-associated diabetes in a prospective cohort in Chihuahua, Mexico. Toxicol Sci 144(2):338-346. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfu318 PMID:25577196 PMCID:PMC4372663
  • Martin EA, Ray PD, Smeester L, Grace MR, Boggess K, Fry RC. 2015. Epigenetics and preeclampsia: defining functional epimutations in the preeclamptic placenta related to the TGF-β pathway. PLoS One 10(10):e0141294. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0141294 PMID:26510177 PMCID:PMC4624949
  • Rager JE, Tilley SK, Tulenko SE, Smeester L, Ray PD, Yosim A, Currier JM, Ishida MC, del Carmen Gonzalez-Horta M, Sanchez-Ramirez B, Ballinas-Casarrubias L, Gutierrez-Torres DS, Drobna Z, Del Razo LM, Garcia-Vargas GG, Kim WY, Zhou Y, Wright FA, Styblo M, Fry RC. 2015. Identification of novel gene targets and putative regulators of arsenic-associated DNA methylation in human urothelial cells and bladder cancer. Chem Res Toxicol 28(6):1144-1155. doi:10.1021/tx500393y PMID:26039340 PMCID:PMC4748849
  • Rojas D, Rager JE, Smeester L, Bailey KA, Drobna Z, Rubio-Andrade M, Styblo M, Garcia-Vargas GG, Fry RC. 2015. Prenatal arsenic exposure and the epigenome: identifying sites of 5-methylcytosine alterations that predict functional changes in gene expression in newborn cord blood and subsequent birth outcomes. Toxicol Sci 143(1):97-106. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfu210 PMID:25304211 PMCID:PMC4274382
  • Vidal AC, Semenova V, Darrah T, Vengosh A, Huang Z, King K, Nye MD, Fry RC, Skaar D, Maguire R, Murtha A, Schildkraut J, Murphy SK, Hoyo C. 2015. Maternal cadmium, iron and zinc levels, DNA methylation and birth weight. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 16:20. doi:10.1186/s40360-015-0020-2 PMID:26173596 PMCID:PMC4502530


  • Bailey KA, Fry RC. 2014. Arsenic-associated changes to the epigenome: what are the functional consequences?. Curr Environ Health Rep 1:22-34. doi:10.1007/s40572-013-0002-8 PMID:24860721 PMCID:PMC4026129
  • Bailey KA, Fry RC. 2014. Long-term health consequences of prenatal arsenic exposure: links to the genome and the epigenome. Rev Environ Health 29(1-2):9-12. doi:10.1515/reveh-2014-0006 PMID:24552957 PMCID:PMC4049250
  • Bailey KA, Laine JE, Rager JE, Sebastian E, Olshan A, Smeester L, Drobna Z, Styblo M, Rubio-Andrade M, Garcia-Vargas GG, Fry RC. 2014. Prenatal arsenic exposure and shifts in the newborn proteome: interindividual differences in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-responsive signaling. Toxicol Sci 139(2):328-337. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfu053 PMID:24675094 PMCID:PMC4031624
  • Currier JM, Ishida MC, Gonzalez-Horta C, Sanchez-Ramirez B, Ballinas-Casarrubias L, Gutierrez-Torres DS, Ceron RH, Morales DV, Baeza Terrazas FA, Del Razo LM, Garcia-Vargas GG, Saunders RJ, Drobna Z, Fry RC, Matousek T, Buse JB, Mendez MA, Loomis D, Styblo M. 2014. Associations between arsenic species in exfoliated urothelial cells and prevalence of diabetes among residents of Chihuahua, Mexico. Environ Health Perspect 122(10):1088-1094. doi:10.1289/ehp.1307756 PMID:25000461 PMCID:PMC4181927
  • Johnston JE, Valentiner E, Maxson P, Miranda ML, Fry RC. 2014. Maternal cadmium levels during pregnancy associated with lower birth weight in infants in a North Carolina cohort. PLoS One 9(10):e109661. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0109661 PMID:25285731 PMCID:PMC4186854
  • Nye MD, Fry RC, Hoyo C, Murphy SK. 2014. Investigating epigenetic effects of prenatal exposure to toxic metals in newborns: Challenges and benefits. Med Epigenet 2:53-59. doi:10.1159/000362336 PMID:24955086 PMCID:PMC4061711
  • Rager JE, Moeller BC, Miller SK, Kracko D, Doyle-Eisele M, Swenberg JA, Fry RC. 2014. Formaldehyde-associated changes in microRNAs: tissue and temporal specificity in the rat nose, white blood cells, and bone marrow. Toxicol Sci 138(1):36-46. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kft267 PMID:24304932 PMCID:PMC3930361
  • Rager JE, Yosim A, Fry RC. 2014. Prenatal exposure to arsenic and cadmium impacts infectious disease-related genes within the glucocorticoid receptor signal transduction pathway. Int J Mol Sci 15(12):22374-22391. doi:10.3390/ijms151222374 PMID:25479081 PMCID:PMC4284714
  • Ray PD, Yosim A, Fry RC. 2014. Incorporating epigenetic data into the risk assessment process for the toxic metals arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury: strategies and challenges. Front Genet 5:201. doi:10.3389/fgene.2014.00201 PMID:25076963 PMCID:PMC4100550
  • Sanders AP, Desrosiers TA, Warren JL, Herring AH, Enright D, Olshan A, Meyer RE, Fry RC. 2014. Association between arsenic, cadmium, manganese, and lead levels in private wells and birth defects prevalence in North Carolina: a semi-ecologic study. BMC Public Health 14:955. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-955 PMID:25224535 PMCID:PMC4190372
  • Sanders AP, Miller SK, Nguyen V, Kotch JB, Fry RC. 2014. Toxic metal levels in children residing in a smelting craft village in Vietnam: A pilot biomonitoring study. BMC Public Health 14:8. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-114 PMID:24495283 PMCID:PMC3922956
  • Smeester L, Yosim A, Nye MD, Hoyo C, Murphy SK, Fry RC. 2014. Imprinted genes and the environment: links to the toxic metals arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury. Genes (Basel) 5(2):477-496. doi:10.3390/genes5020477 PMID:24921406 PMCID:PMC4094944


  • Ahir B, Sanders AP, Rager JE, Fry RC. 2013. Systems biology and birth defects prevention: Blockade of the glucocorticoid receptor prevents arsenic-induced birth defects. Environ Health Perspect 121(3):332-338. doi:10.1289/ehp.1205659 PMID:23458687 PMCID:PMC3616967
  • Rager JE, Moeller BC, Doyle-Eisele M, Kracko D, Swenberg JA, Fry RC. 2013. Formaldehyde and epigenetic alterations: microRNA changes in the nasal epithelium of nonhuman primates. Environ Health Perspect 121(3):339-344. doi:10.1289/ehp.1205582 PMID:23322811 PMCID:PMC3621188
  • Sanders AP, Smeester L, Rojas D, DeBussycher T, Wu MC, Wright FA, Zhou Y, Laine JE, Rager JE, Swamy GK, Ashley-Koch A, Miranda ML, Fry RC. 2013. Cadmium exposure and the epigenome: Exposure-associated patterns of DNA methylation in leukocytes from mother-baby pairs. Epigenetics 9(2):29-38. doi:10.4161/epi.26798 PMID:24169490 PMCID:PMC3962531
  • Swenberg JA, Moeller BC, Lu K, Rager JE, Fry RC, Starr TB. 2013. Formaldehyde carcinogenicity research: 30 years and counting for mode of action, epidemiology, and cancer risk assessment. Toxicol Pathol 41(2):181-189. doi:10.1177/0192623312466459 PMID:23160431 PMCID:PMC3893912



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