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Project Publications: Duke University: Neurobehavioral Toxicity Core

Superfund Research Program

Neurobehavioral Toxicity Core

Project Leader: Edward D. Levin
Grant Number: P42ES010356
Funding Period: 2011-2022

Project-Specific Links



  • Boyda J, Hawkey AB, Holloway Z, Trevisan R, Di Giulio RT, Levin ED. 2021. The organophosphate insecticide diazinon and aging: Neurobehavioral and mitochondrial effects in zebrafish exposed as embryos or during aging. Neurotoxicol Teratol 87:doi:10.1016/ PMID:34224825 PMCID:PMC8440393
  • Hawkey AB, Holloway Z, Levin ED. 2021. A behavioral test battery to assess larval and adult zebrafish after developmental neurotoxic exposure. Experimental Neurotoxicology Methods 172:353-380. doi:10.1007/978-1-0716-1637-6_16
  • Holloway Z, Hawkey AB, Asrat H, Boinapally N, Levin ED. 2021. The use of tocofersolan as a rescue agent in larval zebrafish exposed to benzo[a]pyrene in early development. Neurotoxicology 86:78-84. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2021.07.003 PMID:34273383
  • Levin ED. 2021. Invited Perspective: Does developmental adaptation pose risks with changing toxicant exposures?. Environ Health Perspect 129(8):81302. doi:10.1289/ehp9560 PMID:34383604 PMCID:PMC8360002
  • Pan WK, Weinhouse C, Ortiz EJ, Berky AJ, Fixsen E, Mallipudi A, Feingold BJ, Navio S, Rivera NA, Hsu-Kim H, Miranda JJ. 2021. CoNaMad-Cohorte de Nacimiento de Madre de Dios / Madre de Dios Birth Cohort to Study Effects of in-utero Trace Metals Exposure in the Southern Peruvian Amazon. Ann Glob Health 87:doi:10.5334/aogh.3152 PMID:34327116 PMCID:PMC8300581




  • Glazer L, Hawkey AB, Wells C, Drastal M, Odamah K, Behl M, Levin ED. 2018. Developmental exposure to low concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants causes life-long behavioral alterations in zebrafish. Toxicol Sci 165(2):487-498. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfy173 PMID:29982741 PMCID:PMC6154272
  • Glazer L, Wells C, Drastal M, Odamah K, Galat RE, Behl M, Levin ED. 2018. Developmental exposure to low concentrations of two brominated flame retardants, BDE-47 and BDE-99, causes life-long behavioral alterations in zebrafish. Neurotoxicology 66:221-232. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2017.09.007 PMID:28935585 PMCID:PMC5858967
  • Levin ED, Abreu-Villaca Y. 2018. Developmental neurotoxicity of nicotine and tobacco. Chapter 39 in: Handbook of Developmental Neurotoxicology, 2nd Edition. Elsevier Inc., pp.439-452.
  • Massarsky A, Abdel A, Glazer L, Levin ED, Di Giulio RT. 2018. Neurobehavioral effects of 1,2-propanediol in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Neurotoxicology 65:111-124. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2018.02.007 PMID:29432853
  • Oliveri A, Ortiz E, Levin ED. 2018. Developmental exposure to an organophosphate flame retardant alters later behavioral responses to dopamine antagonism in zebrafish larvae. Neurotoxicol Teratol 67:25-30. doi:10.1016/ PMID:29559250 PMCID:PMC5970957
  • Pitt JA, Trevisan R, Massarsky A, Kozal JS, Levin ED, Di Giulio RT. 2018. Maternal transfer of nanoplastics to offspring in zebrafish (Danio rerio): A case study with nanopolystyrene. Sci Total Environ 643:324-334. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.06.186 PMID:29940444


  • Abreu-Villaca Y, Levin ED. 2017. Developmental neurotoxicity of succeeding generations of insecticides. Environ Int 99:55-77. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2016.11.019 PMID:27908457 PMCID:PMC5285268
  • Levin ED. 2017. Neurodevelopmental Toxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Nicotine. Neurotoxicol Teratol 61:153. doi:10.1016/
  • Macaulay LJ, Chernick M, Chen A, Hinton DE, Bailey JM, Kullman SW, Levin ED, Stapleton HM. 2017. Exposure to a PBDE/OH-BDE mixture alters juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio) development. Environ Toxicol Chem 36(1):36-48. doi:10.1002/etc.3535 PMID:27329031
  • Massarsky A, Abdel A, Glazer L, Levin ED, Di Giulio RT. 2017. Exposure to 1,2-propanediol impacts early development of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and induces hyperactivity. Zebrafish 14(3):216-222. doi:10.1089/zeb.2016.1400 PMID:28266909
  • Slotkin TA, Skavicus S, Card JA, Di Giulio RT, Seidler FJ. 2017. In vitro models reveal differences in the developmental neurotoxicity of an environmental polycylic aromatic hydrocarbon mixture compared to benzo[a]pyrene: Neuronotypic PC12 Cells and embryonic neural stem cells. Toxicology 377:49-56. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2016.12.008 PMID:28049045 PMCID:PMC5250555


  • Abreu-Villaca Y, Levin ED. 2016. Developmental neurobehavioral neurotoxicity of insecticides. In: Handbook of Development Neurotoxicology. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. pp.453-466.
  • Bailey JM, Oliveri A, Karbhari N, Brooks RA, De La Rocha AJ, Janardhan S, Levin ED. 2016. Persistent behavioral effects following early life exposure to retinoic acid or valproic acid in zebrafish. Neurotoxicology 52:23-33. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2015.10.001 PMID:26439099 PMCID:PMC4753107
  • Brown DR, Bailey JM, Oliveri A, Levin ED, Di Giulio RT. 2016. Developmental exposure to a complex PAH mixture causes persistent behavioral effects in naive Fundulus heteroclitus (killifish) but not in a population of PAH-adapted killifish. Neurotoxicol Teratol 53:55-63. doi:10.1016/ PMID:26548404 PMCID:PMC4803068
  • Petro A, Sexton HG, Miranda C, Rastogi A, Freedman JH, Levin ED. 2016. Persisting neurobehavioral effects of developmental copper exposure in wildtype and metallothionein 1 and 2 knockout mice. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 17(1):55. doi:10.1186/s40360-016-0096-3 PMID:27802831 PMCID:PMC5090947
  • Slotkin TA, Skavicus S, Card JA, Levin ED, Seidler FJ. 2016. Diverse neurotoxicants target the differentiation of embryonic neural stem cells into neuronal and glial phenotypes. Toxicology 372:42-51. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2016.10.015 PMID:27816694 PMCID:PMC5137195




  • Bailey JM, Oliveri A, Levin ED. 2013. Zebrafish model systems for developmental neurobehavioral toxicology. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today 99:14-23. doi:10.1002/bdrc.21027 PMID:23723169 PMCID:PMC4000730
  • Levin ED, Landrigan PJ, Etzel R. 2013. Developmental Toxicology and Children's Environmental Health. In: The Oxford Textbook of Environmental Pediatrics: Environmental Influences on Health, Development and Disease. Oxford, New York, NY. pp.83-88.
  • Slotkin TA, Card JA, Infante A, Seidler FJ. 2013. BDE99 (2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether) suppresses differentiation into neurotransmitter phenotypes in PC12 cells. Neurotoxicol Teratol 37:13-17. doi:10.1016/ PMID:23422510 PMCID:PMC3669237
  • Slotkin TA, Card JA, Infante A, Seidler FJ. 2013. Prenatal dexamethasone augments the sex-selective developmental neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos: Implications for vulnerability after pharmacotherapy for preterm labor. Neurotoxicol Teratol 37:1-12. doi:10.1016/ PMID:23416428 PMCID:PMC3669256
  • Slotkin TA, Card JA, Seidler FJ. 2013. Adverse benzo[a]pyrene effects on neurodifferentiation are altered by other neurotoxicant coexposures: Interactions with dexamethasone, chlorpyrifos, or nicotine in PC12 cells. Environ Health Perspect 121:825-831. doi:10.1289/ehp.1306528 PMID:23603068 PMCID:PMC3702011
  • Slotkin TA, Cooper EM, Stapleton HM, Seidler FJ. 2013. Does thyroid disruption contribute to the developmental neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos?. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 36(2):284-287. doi:10.1016/j.etap.2013.04.003 PMID:23686008 PMCID:PMC3745805
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