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Project Publications: University of Iowa: PCBs: Metabolism, Genotoxicity and Gene Expression in vivo

Superfund Research Program

PCBs: Metabolism, Genotoxicity and Gene Expression in vivo

Project Leader: Larry W. Robertson
Grant Number: P42ES013661
Funding Period: 2006-2020
View this project in the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT)

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  • Buranasudja V, Doskey CM, Gibson AR, Wagner BA, Du J, Gordon DJ, Koppenhafer S, Cullen JJ, Buettner GR. 2019. Pharmacologic ascorbate primes pancreatic cancer cells for death by rewiring cellular energetics and inducing DNA damage. Mol Cancer Res 17:2102-14. doi:10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-19-0381 PMID:31337671 PMCID:PMC6774825
  • Gourronc FA, Perdew GH, Robertson LW, Klingelhutz AJ. 2019. PCB126 blocks the thermogenic beiging response of adipocytes. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 27:doi:10.1007/s11356-019-06663-0 PMID:31721030 PMCID:PMC7098842
  • Klenov V, Flor S, Adur M, Ganesan S, Eti N, Iqbal K, Soares M, Ludewig G, Ross J, Keating A, Robertson LW. 2019. Uterine toxicity following exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl 126 is mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Fertil Steril 111(4):e4. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2019.02.038
  • Liu B, Sun Y, Xu G, Snetselaar LG, Ludewig G, Wallace RB, Bao W. 2019. Association between Body Iron Status and Leukocyte Telomere Length, a Biomarker of Biological Aging, in a Nationally Representative Sample of US Adults. J Acad Nutr Diet 119(4):617-625. doi:10.1016/j.jand.2018.09.007 PMCID:PMC6548326
  • Ronis M, Watts J, Pulliam CF, Williams AE, Alund AW, Haque E, Gadupudi GS, Robertson LW. 2019. Skeletal toxicity resulting from exposure of growing male rats to coplanar PCB 126 is associated with disruption of calcium homeostasis and the GH-IGF-1 axis and direct effects on bone formation. Arch Toxicol doi:10.1007/s00204-019-02645-w PMID:31820026



  • Buettner GR, Buranasudja V, Doskey CM, Wagner BA. 2017. Estimating and partitioning the flux of ATP in cells in culture using mol cell(-1) s(-1) and the stoichiometries of metabolism. Free Radic Biol Med 112:161-161. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2017.10.248
  • Buranasudja V, Doskey CM, Wagner BA, Du J, Gordon DJ, Koppenhafer S, Cullen JJ, Buettner GR. 2017. DNA damage and energy crisis are central in the mechanism for the cytotoxicity of pharmacological ascorbate in cancer treatment. Free Radic Biol Med 112:162-162. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2017.10.249
  • Grimm FA, Lehmler H, Koh W, DeWall J, Teesch LM, Hornbuckle KC, Thorne PS, Robertson LW, Duffel MW. 2017. Identification of a sulfate metabolite of PCB 11 in human serum. Environ Int 98:120-128. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2016.10.023 PMID:27816204 PMCID:PMC5127762
  • Kalkunte S, Huang Z, Lippe EO, Robertson LW, Sharma S, Kumar S. 2017. Polychlorinated biphenyls target Notch/Dll and VEGF R2 in the mouse placenta and human trophoblast cell lines for their anti-angiogenic effects. Sci Rep 7:39885. doi:10.1038/srep39885 PMID:28071720 PMCID:PMC5223111
  • Lynch CF, Kelly KM, Ludewig G, Wang K, Roh T, Weyer P. 2017. Low-level arsenic exposure from drinking water is associated with prostate cancer in Iowa. Environ Res 159:338-343. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2017.08.026 PMID:28841521 PMCID:PMC5623650
  • Wagner BA, Buranasudja V. 2017. Quantitative differences in physical size, H2O2-removal, and cellular bioenergetics in the human pancreatic cancer cell lines MIA PaCa-2 and Panc-1: Impact on susceptibilities to ascorbate/H2O. Free Radic Biol Med 112:178-178. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2017.10.279


  • Anderson DG, Florang V, Schamp J, Buettner GR, Doorn JA. 2016. Antioxidant-mediated modulation of protein reactivity for 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, a toxic dopamine metabolite. Chem Res Toxicol 29(7):1098-1107. doi:10.1021/acs.chemrestox.5b00528 PMID:27268734 PMCID:PMC5248556
  • Ctistis G, Schon P, Bakker W, Luthe G. 2016. PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs co-occurrence in TiO2 nanoparticles. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 23(5):4837-4843. doi:10.1007/s11356-015-5628-7 PMID:26545886
  • Doskey CM, Buranasudja V, Wagner BA, Wilkes JG, Du J, Cullen JJ, Buettner GR. 2016. Tumor cells have decreased ability to metabolize H2O2: Implications for pharmacological ascorbate in cancer therapy. Redox Biol 10:274-284. doi:10.1016/j.redox.2016.10.010 PMID:27833040 PMCID:PMC5106370
  • Ekuase EJ, van't Erve TJ, Rahaman A, Robertson LW, Duffel MW, Luthe G. 2016. Mechanistic insights into the specificity of human cytosolic sulfotransferase 2A1 (hSULT2A1) for hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls through the use of fluoro-tagged probes. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 23(3):2119-2127. doi:10.1007/s11356-015-4886-8 PMID:26165989 PMCID:PMC4713379
  • Flor S, He X, Lehmler H, Ludewig G. 2016. Estrogenicity and androgenicity screening of PCB sulfate monoesters in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 23(3):2186-2200. doi:10.1007/s11356-015-5142-y PMID:26300354 PMCID:PMC4718780
  • Gadupudi GS, Klaren WD, Olivier AK, Klingelhutz AJ, Robertson LW. 2016. PCB126-induced disruption in gluconeogenesis and fatty acid oxidation precedes fatty liver in male rats. Toxicol Sci 149(1):98-110. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfv215 PMID:26396156 PMCID:PMC4731404
  • Gadupudi GS, Klingelhutz AJ, Robertson LW. 2016. Diminished phosphorylation of CREB is a key event in the dysregulation of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in PCB126 hepatotoxicity. Chem Res Toxicol 29(9):1504-1509. doi:10.1021/acs.chemrestox.6b00172 PMID:27509375
  • Hunt G, Stegeman JJ, Robertson LW. 2016. PCBs: exposures, effects, remediation, and regulation with special emphasis on PCBs in schools. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 23(3):1971-1974. doi:10.1007/s11356-015-5774-y PMID:26620856 PMCID:PMC4718839
  • Klaren WD, Flor S, Gibson-Corley KN, Ludewig G, Robertson LW. 2016. Metallothionein's role in PCB126 induced hepatotoxicity and hepatic micronutrient disruption. Toxicol Rep 3:21-28. doi:10.1016/j.toxrep.2015.12.001 PMID:26770886 PMCID:PMC4710377
  • Klaren WD, Gibson-Corley KN, Wels B, Simmons DL, McCormick ML, Spitz DR, Robertson LW. 2016. Assessment of the mitigative capacity of dietary zinc on PCB126 hepatotoxicity and the contribution of zinc to toxicity. Chem Res Toxicol 29(5):851-859. doi:10.1021/acs.chemrestox.6b00022 PMID:26967026 PMCID:PMC5100827
  • Li M, Teesch LM, Murry DJ, Pope RM, Li Y, Robertson LW, Ludewig G. 2016. Cytochrome c adducts with PCB quinoid metabolites. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 23(3):2148-2159. doi:10.1007/s11356-015-4801-3 PMID:26062463 PMCID:PMC4676959
  • Portier CJ, Armstrong BK, Baguley B, Baur X, Belyaev I, Belle R, Belpoggi F, Biggeri A, Bosland MC, Bruzzi P, Budnik L, Bugge M, Burns K, Calaf GM, Carpenter DO, Carpenter H, Lopez-Carillo L, Clapp R, Cocco P, Consonni D, Comba P, Craft ES, Dalvie M, Davis D, Demers PA, De Roos AJ, DeWitt JC, Forastiere F, Freedman JH, Fritschi L, Gaus C, Gohlke J, Goldberg M, Greiser E, Hansen J, Hardell L, Hauptmann M, Huang W, Huff J, James MO, Jameson C, Kortenkamp A, Kopp-Schneider A, Kromhout H, Larramendy M, Landrigan PJ, Lash LH, Leszczynski D, Lynch CF, Magnani C, Mandrioli D, Martin FL, Merler E, Michelozzi P, Miligi L, Miller A, Mirabelli D, Mirer F, Naidoo S, Perry MJ, Petronio M, Pirastu R, Portier R, Ramos KS, Robertson LW, Rodriguez T, Roosli M, Ross M, Roy D, Rusyn I, Saldiva P, Sass J, Savolainen K, Scheepers P, Sergi C, Silbergeld EK, Smith MT, Stewart BW, Sutton P, Tateo F, Terracini B, Thielmann H, Thomas DB, Vainio H, Vena J, Vineis P, Weiderpass E, Weisenburger DD, Woodruff TJ, Yorifuji T, Yu I, Zambon P, Zeeb H, Zhou SF. 2016. Differences in the carcinogenic evaluation of glyphosate between the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). J Epidemiol Community Health 70(8):741-745. doi:10.1136/jech-2015-207005 PMID:26941213 PMCID:PMC4975799
  • Rodriguez EA, Li X, Lehmler H, Robertson LW, Duffel MW. 2016. Sulfation of lower chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls increases their affinity for the major drug-binding sites of human serum albumin. Environ Sci Technol 50(10):5320-5327. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b00484 PMID:27116425 PMCID:PMC4883002
  • Shen H, Robertson LW, Ludewig G. 2016. Regulatory effects of dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like PCBs and other AhR ligands on the antioxidant enzymes paraoxonase 1/2/3. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 23(3):2108-2118. doi:10.1007/s11356-015-4722-1 PMID:26006071 PMCID:PMC4662644
  • Wang B, Klaren WD, Wels B, Simmons DL, Olivier AK, Wang K, Robertson LW, Ludewig G. 2016. Dietary manganese modulates PCB126 toxicity, metal status, and MnSOD in the rat. Toxicol Sci 150(1):15-26. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfv312 PMID:26660635 PMCID:PMC5009614
  • Wangpradit O, Adamcakova-Dodd A, Heitz K, Robertson LW, Thorne PS, Luthe G. 2016. PAMAM dendrimers as nano carriers to investigate inflammatory responses induced by pulmonary exposure of PCB metabolites in Sprague-Dawley rats. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 23(3):2128-2137. doi:10.1007/s11356-015-5022-5 PMID:26400242 PMCID:PMC4803647
  • Wangpradit O, Rahaman A, Mariappan S, Buettner GR, Robertson LW, Luthe G. 2016. Breaking the dogma: PCB-derived semiquinone free radicals do not form covalent adducts with DNA, GSH, and amino acids. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 23(3):2138-2147. doi:10.1007/s11356-015-5007-4 PMID:26396011 PMCID:PMC4767158
  • Weisenhorn EM, van't Erve TJ, Riley NM, Hess JR, Raife TJ, Coon JJ. 2016. Multi-omics evidence for inheritance of energy pathways in red blood cells. Mol Cell Proteomics 15(12):3614-3623. doi:10.1074/mcp.M116.062349 PMID:27777340 PMCID:PMC5141275
  • Wu X, Yang J, Morisseau C, Robertson LW, Hammock BD, Lehmler H. 2016. 3,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) decreases hepatic and systemic ratios of epoxide to diol metabolites of unsaturated fatty acids in male rats. Toxicol Sci 152(2):309-322. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfw084 PMID:27208083 PMCID:PMC4960907
  • Xiao W, Sarsour EH, Wagner BA, Doskey CM, Buettner GR, Domann FE, Goswami PC. 2016. Succinate dehydrogenase activity regulates PCB3-quinone-induced metabolic oxidative stress and toxicity in HaCaT human keratinocytes. Arch Toxicol 90(2):319-332. doi:10.1007/s00204-014-1407-3 PMID:25417049 PMCID:PMC4441874
  • Xin X, Senthilkumar PK, Schnoor JL, Ludewig G. 2016. Effects of PCB126 and PCB153 on telomerase activity and telomere length in undifferentiated and differentiated HL-60 cells. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 23(3):2173-2185. doi:10.1007/s11356-015-5187-y PMID:26330309 PMCID:PMC4718801




  • Buettner GR, Wagner BA, Rodgers VG. 2013. Quantitative redox biology: an approach to understand the role of reactive species in defining the cellular redox environment. Cell Biochem Biophys 67(2):477-483. doi:10.1007/s12013-011-9320-3 PMID:22161621 PMCID:PMC3661692
  • Dhakal K, Adamcakova-Dodd A, Lehmler H, Thorne PS, Robertson LW. 2013. Sulfate conjugates are urinary markers of inhalation exposure to 4-chlorobiphenyl (PCB3). Chem Res Toxicol 26(6):853-855. doi:10.1021/tx4001539 PMID:23713983 PMCID:PMC3703249
  • Grimm FA, Lehmler H, He X, Robertson LW, Duffel MW. 2013. Sulfated metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls are high-affinity ligands for the thyroid hormone transport protein transthyretin. Environ Health Perspect 121(6):657-662. doi:10.1289/ehp.1206198 PMID:23584369 PMCID:PMC3672920
  • Lai IK, Klaren WD, Li M, Wels B, Simmons DL, Olivier AK, Haschek-Hock WM, Wang K, Ludewig G, Robertson LW. 2013. Does dietary copper supplementation enhance or diminish PCB126 toxicity in the rodent liver?. Chem Res Toxicol 26(5):634-644. doi:10.1021/tx400049s PMID:23527585 PMCID:PMC3660509
  • Ludewig G, Flor S. 2013. Harlequin Chromosomes. In: Brenner's Encyclopedia of Genetics (2nd ed). pp.399-401.
  • Ludewig G, Robertson LW. 2013. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as initiating agents in hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Lett 334(1):46-55. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2012.11.041 PMID:23211541 PMCID:PMC3648605
  • Ludewig G, Robertson LW, Glauert HP. 2013. Carcinogenicity and Mechanisms of Persistent Organic Pollutants. In: Effects of Persistent and Bioactive Organic Pollutants on Human Health. pp.57-100.
  • Olney KE, Du J, van't Erve TJ, Witmer JR, Sibenaller ZA, Wagner BA, Buettner GR, Cullen JJ. 2013. Inhibitors of hydroperoxide metabolism enhance ascorbate-induced cytotoxicity. Free Radic Res 47(3):154-163. doi:10.3109/10715762.2012.755263 PMID:23205739 PMCID:PMC3674878
  • Qin X, Lehmler H, Teesch LM, Robertson LW, Duffel MW. 2013. Chlorinated biphenyl quinones and phenyl- 2,5-benzoquinone differentially modify the catalytic activity of human hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase hSULT2A1. Chem Res Toxicol 26(10):1474-1485. doi:10.1021/tx400207q PMID:24059442 PMCID:PMC3846294
  • Rawal M, Schroeder SR, Wagner BA, Cushing CM, Welsh JL, Button AM, Du J, Sibenaller ZA, Buettner GR, Cullen JJ. 2013. Manganoporphyrins increase ascorbate-induced cytotoxicity by enhancing H2O2 generation. Cancer Res 73(16):5232-5241. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.can-13-0470 PMID:23764544 PMCID:PMC3745518
  • Rignall B, Grote K, Gavrilov A, Weimer M, Kopp-Schneider A, Krause E, Appel KE, Buchmann A, Robertson LW, Lehmler H, Kania-Korwel I, Chahoud I, Schwarz M. 2013. Biological and tumor-promoting effects of dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in mouse liver after single or combined treatment. Toxicol Sci 133(1):29-41. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kft034 PMID:23457121 PMCID:PMC3627557
  • Svensson RU, Bannick NL, Marin MJ, Robertson LW, Lynch CF, Henry MD. 2013. Chronic chlorpyrifos exposure does not promote prostate cancer in prostate specific PTEN mutant mice. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 32(1):29-39. doi:10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.2013006778 PMID:23758150 PMCID:PMC3951157
  • van't Erve TJ, Wagner BA, Ryckman KK, Raife TJ, Buettner GR. 2013. The concentration of glutathione in human erythrocytes is a heritable trait. Free Radic Biol Med 65:742-749. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2013.08.002 PMID:23938402 PMCID:PMC3859832
  • Wagner BA, Witmar JR, van't Erve TJ, Buettner GR. 2013. An assay for the rate of removal of extracellular hydrogen peroxide by cells. Redox Biol 1:210-217. doi:10.1016/j.redox.2013.01.011 PMID:23936757 PMCID:PMC3736862
  • Welsh JL, Wagner BA, van't Erve TJ, Zehr PS, Berg DJ, Halfdanarson TR, Yee NS, Bodeker KL, Du J, Roberts LJ, Drisko J, Levine M, Buettner GR, Cullen JJ. 2013. Pharmacological ascorbate with gemcitabine for the control of metastatic and node-positive pancreatic cancer (PACMAN): results from a phase I clinical trial. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 71(3):765-775. doi:10.1007/s00280-013-2070-8 PMID:23381814 PMCID:PMC3587047
  • Zhu Y, Mapuskar KA, Marek RF, Xu W, Lehmler H, Robertson LW, Hornbuckle KC, Spitz DR, Aykin-Burns N. 2013. A new player in environmentally induced oxidative stress: polychlorinated biphenyl congener, 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB11). Toxicol Sci 136(1):39-50. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kft186 PMID:23997111 PMCID:PMC3829572



  • Anderson DG, Mariappan S, Buettner GR, Doorn JA. 2011. Oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, a toxic dopaminergic metabolite, to a semiquinone radical and an ortho-quinone. J Biol Chem 286:26978-26986. doi:10.1074/jbc.M111.249532 PMID:21642436 PMCID:PMC3143656
  • Buettner GR. 2011. Superoxide dismutase in redox biology: the roles of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Anticancer Agents Med Chem 11(4):341-346. PMID:21453242 PMCID:PMC3131414
  • Bunaciu RP, Tharappel JC, Lehmler H, Lee EY, Robertson LW, Bruckner GG, Spear BT, Glauert HP. 2011. Role of oil vehicle on hepatic cell proliferation in PCB-treated rats. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 30(4):273-282. PMID:22181977 PMCID:PMC3522147
  • Ekuase EJ, Liu Y, Lehmler H, Robertson LW, Duffel MW. 2011. Structure-activity relationships for hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls as inhibitors of the sulfation of dehydroepiandrosterone catalyzed by human hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase SULT2A1. Chem Res Toxicol 24:1720-1728. doi:10.1021/tx200260h PMID:21913674 PMCID:PMC3196794
  • Lai IK, Chai Y, Simmons DL, Watson WH, Tan R, Haschek-Hock WM, Wang K, Wang B, Ludewig G, Robertson LW. 2011. Dietary selenium as a modulator of PCB 126-induced hepatotoxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Toxicol Sci 124:202-214. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfr215 PMID:21865291 PMCID:PMC3196656
  • Liu Y, Lehmler H, Robertson LW, Duffel MW. 2011. Physicochemical properties of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls aid in predicting their interactions with rat sulfotransferase 1A1 (rSULT1A1). Chem Biol Interact 189:153-160. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2010.11.009 PMID:21130751 PMCID:PMC3032042
  • Robertson LW, Ludewig G. 2011. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) carcinogenicity with special emphasis on airborne PCBs. Gefahrst Reinhalt Luft 71(1-2):25-32. PMID:21686028 PMCID:PMC3113507
  • Sarsour EH, Kumar MG, Kalen AL, Goswami M, Buettner GR, Goswami PC. 2011. MnSOD activity regulates hydroxytyrosol-induced extension of chronological lifespan. Age (Dordr) 34(1):95-109. doi:10.1007/s11357-011-9223-7 PMID:21384152 PMCID:PMC3260369
  • Senthilkumar PK, Klingelhutz AJ, Jacobus JA, Lehmler H, Robertson LW, Ludewig G. 2011. Airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) reduce telomerase activity and shorten telomere length in immortal human skin keratinocytes (HaCat). Toxicol Lett 204:64-70. doi:10.1016/j.toxlet.2011.04.012 PMID:21530622 PMCID:PMC3109099
  • Song Y, Ambati J, Parkin S, Rankin S, Robertson LW, Lehmler H. 2011. Crystal structure and density functional theory studies of toxic quinone metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls. Chemosphere 85:386-392. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.07.004 PMID:21824639 PMCID:PMC3206982
  • Wagner BA, Venkataraman S, Buettner GR. 2011. The rate of oxygen utilization by cells. Free Radic Biol Med 51(3):700-712. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.05.024 PMID:21664270 PMCID:PMC3147247
  • Wang B, Robertson LW, Wang K, Ludewig G. 2011. Species difference in the regulation of cytochrome P450 2S1: lack of induction in rats by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist PCB126. Xenobiotica 41:1031-1043. doi:10.3109/00498254.2011.603763 PMID:21970748 PMCID:PMC3564674


  • Chan K, Lehmler H, Sivagnanam M, Yan Feng C, Robertson LW, O'Brien P. 2010. Cytotoxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyl hydroquinone metabolites in rat hepatocytes. J Appl Toxicol 30:163-171. doi:10.1002/jat.1483 PMID:19830680
  • Dreiem A, Rykken S, Lehmler H, Robertson LW, Fonnum F. 2010. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls increase reactive oxygen species formation and induce cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 240:306-313. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2009.07.016 PMID:19631230 PMCID:PMC2753730
  • Eslami A, Pasanphan W, Wagner BA, Buettner GR. 2010. Free radicals produced by the oxidation of gallic acid: an electron paramagnetic resonance study. Chem Cent J 4:15. doi:10.1186/1752-153x-4-15 PMID:20687941 PMCID:PMC2924338
  • Flor S, Ludewig G. 2010. Polyploidy-induction by dihydroxylated monochlorobiphenyls: structureactivity- relationships. Environ Int 36:962-9. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2010.03.012 PMID:20471090 PMCID:PMC2949501
  • Jacobus JA, Wang B, Maddox C, Esch HL, Lehmann L, Robertson LW, Wang K, Kirby PA, Ludewig G. 2010. 3-Methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and 4-chlorobiphenyl (PCB3) genotoxicity is gender-related in Fischer 344 transgenic rats. Environ Int 36(8):970-979. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2010.07.006 PMID:20739065 PMCID:PMC2949545
  • Lai IK, Chai Y, Simmons DL, Luthe G, Coleman MC, Spitz DR, Haschek-Hock WM, Ludewig G, Robertson LW. 2010. Acute toxicity of 3,3,4,4,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) in male Sprague-Dawley rats: effects on hepatic oxidative stress, glutathione and metals status. Environ Int 36(8):918-923. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2009.11.002 PMID:19969354 PMCID:PMC2891598
  • Li X, Parkin S, Duffel MW, Robertson LW, Lehmler H. 2010. 4 '-Chlorobiphenyl-3-yl 2,2,2-trichloroethyl sulfate. Acta Crystallogr B 66:O2306-U305. doi:10.1107/s1600536810031338 PMID:25681997 PMCID:PMC3008081
  • Ludewig G, Robertson LW. 2010. Preface to the special issue, PCBs: new knowledge gained from old pollutants. Environ Int 36(8):813. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2010.07.004
  • Ptak A, Ludewig G, Rak A, Nadolna W, Bochenek M, Gregoraszczuk EL. 2010. Induction of cytochrome P450 I A I in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by 4-chIorobiphenyl (PCBS) and the effects of its hydroxylated metabolites on cellular apoptosis. Environ Int 36:935-41. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2009.06.012 PMID:19604582 PMCID:PMC2904404
  • Ravoori S, Srinivasan C, Pereg D, Robertson LW, Ayotte P, Gupta RC. 2010. Protective effects of selenium against DNA adduct formation in Inuit environmentally exposed to PCBs. Environ Int 36(8):980-986. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2009.08.001 PMID:19735942 PMCID:PMC3354714
  • Song Y, Buettner GR. 2010. Thermodynamic and kinetic considerations for the reaction of semiquinone radicals to form superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Free Radic Biol Med 49:919-962. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2010.05.009 PMID:20493944 PMCID:PMC2936108
  • Wangpradit O, Moman E, Nolan K, Buettner GR, Robertson LW, Luthe G. 2010. Observation of an unusual electronically distorted semiquinone radical of PCB metabolites in the active site of prostaglandin H synthase-2. Chemosphere 81:1501-1508. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.08.041 PMID:20843536 PMCID:PMC3622869
  • Ward EM, Schulte PA, Straif K, Hopf NB, Caldwell JC, Carreon T, DeMarini DM, Fowler BA, Goldstein BD, Hemminki K, Hines CJ, Pursiainen K, Kuempel E, Lewtas J, Lunn RM, Lynge E, McElvenny DM, Muhle H, Nakajima T, Robertson LW, Rothman N, Ruder AM, Schubauer-Berigan MK, Siemiatycki J, Silverman DT, Smith MT, Sorahan T, Steenland K, Stevens RG, Vineis P, Zahm SH, Zeise L, Cogliano VJ. 2010. Research recommendations for selected IARC-classified agents. Environ Health Perspect 118:1355-62. doi:10.1289/ehp.0901828 PMID:20562050 PMCID:PMC2957912
  • Zhao H, Adamcakova-Dodd A, Hu D, Hornbuckle KC, Just CL, Robertson LW, Thorne PS, Lehmler H. 2010. Development of a synthetic PCB mixture resembling the average polychlorinated biphenyl profile in Chicago air. Environ Int 36(8):819-827. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2009.03.003 PMID:19375801 PMCID:PMC2888912


  • Klosener J, Peters TM, Adamcakova-Dodd A, Teesch LM, Thorne PS, Robertson LW, Luthe G. 2009. Innovative application of fluoro tagging to trace airborne particulate and gas-phase polybrominated diphenyl ether exposures. Chem Res Toxicol 22(1):179-186. doi:10.1021/tx8003032 PMID:19111055 PMCID:PMC3120107
  • Pessah IN, Lehmler H, Robertson LW, Perez CF, Cabrales E, Bose DD, Feng W. 2009. Enantiomeric specificity of (-)-2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl toward ryanodine receptor types 1 and 2. Chem Res Toxicol 22(1):201-207. doi:10.1021/tx800328u PMID:18954145 PMCID:PMC2662366
  • Song Y, Wagner BA, Witmer JR, Lehmler H, Buettner GR. 2009. Nonenzymatic displacement of chlorine and formation of free radicals upon the reaction of glutathione with PCB quinones. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(24):9725-9730. doi:10.1073/pnas.0810352106 PMID:19497881 PMCID:PMC2689812
  • Spencer W, Lehmler H, Robertson LW, Gupta RC. 2009. Oxidative DNA adducts following Cu2+-mediated activation of dihydroxy PCBs: role of reactive oxygen species. Free Radic Biol Med 46(10):1346-1352. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2009.02.005 PMID:19233261 PMCID:PMC2744390
  • Wangpradit O, Teesch LM, Mariappan S, Duffel MW, Norstrom K, Robertson LW, Luthe G. 2009. Oxidation of 4-chlorobiphenyl metabolites to electrophilic species by prostaglandin H synthase. Chem Res Toxicol 22(1):64-71. doi:10.1021/tx800300t PMID:19105592 PMCID:PMC2637223
  • Yang-won S, Buettner GR, Venkataraman S, Treimer S, Robertson LW, Ludewig G. 2009. UVA/B-induced formation of free radicals from decabromodiphenyl ether. Environ Sci Technol 43(7):2581-2588. PMID:19452920 PMCID:PMC2685467


  • Glauert HP, Tharappel JC, Banerjee S, Chan NL, Kania-Korwel I, Lehmler H, Lee EY, Robertson LW, Spear BT. 2008. Inhibition of the promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis by 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153) by the deletion of the p50 subunit of NF-kappa B in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 232(2):302-308. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2008.06.013 PMID:18644402 PMCID:PMC2583134
  • Glauert HP, Tharappel JC, Lu Z, Stemm DN, Banerjee S, Chan L, Lee EY, Lehmler H, Robertson LW, Spear BT. 2008. Role of oxidative stress in the promoting activities of pcbs. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 25(2):247-250. doi:10.1016/j.etap.2007.10.025 PMID:19122744 PMCID:PMC2836878
  • Jacobus JA, Flor S, Klingelhutz AJ, Robertson LW, Ludewig G. 2008. 2-(4'-Chlorophenyl)-1,4-benxoquinone increases the frequency of micronuclei and shortens telomeres. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 25(2):267-272. doi:10.1016/j.etap.2007.10.022 PMID:18438462 PMCID:PMC2346440
  • Kania-Korwel I, Hornbuckle KC, Robertson LW, Lehmler H. 2008. Dose-dependent enantiomeric enrichment of 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl in female mice. Environ Toxicol Chem 27(2):299-305. doi:10.1897/07-359R.1 PMID:18348647
  • Kania-Korwel I, Hornbuckle KC, Robertson LW, Lehmler H. 2008. Influence of dietary fat on the enantioselective disposition of 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) in female mice. Food Chem Toxicol 46(2):637-644. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2007.09.072 PMID:17950514 PMCID:PMC2289907
  • Klosener J, Swenson DC, Robertson LW, Luthe G. 2008. Effects of fluoro substitution on 4-bromodiphenyl ether (PBDE 3). Acta Crystallogr B 64(Pt1):108-119. doi:10.1107/S0108768107067079 PMID:18204217 PMCID:PMC3120100
  • Ludewig G, Lehmann L, Esch HL, Robertson LW. 2008. Metabolic activation of PCBs to carcinogens in vivo - a review. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 25(2):241-246. doi:10.1016/j.etap.2007.10.029 PMID:18452002 PMCID:PMC2364599
  • Luthe G, Boy R, Jacobus JA, Smith B, Rahaman A, Robertson LW, Ludewig G. 2008. Xenobiotic geometry and media pH determine cytotoxicity through solubility. Chem Res Toxicol 21(5):1017-1027. doi:10.1021/tx700214p PMID:18402468
  • Luthe G, Jacobus JA, Robertson LW. 2008. Receptor interactions by polybrominated diphenyl ethers versus polychlorinated biphenyls: a theoretical Structure-activity assessment. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 25(2):202-210. doi:10.1016/j.etap.2007.10.017 PMID:19768137 PMCID:PMC2746664
  • Ravoori S, Ayotte P, Srinivasan C, Pereg D, Robertson LW, Gupta RC, Jeyabalan J. 2008. DNA damage associated with PCBs in the whole blood cells of Inuit. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 25(2):273-276. PMID:21783863
  • Sacco JC, Lehmler H, Robertson LW, Li W, James MO. 2008. Glucuronidation of polychlorinated biphenylols and UDP-glucuronic acid concentrations in channel catfish liver and intestine. Drug Metab Dispos 36(4):623-630. doi:10.1124/dmd.107.019596 PMID:18180271
  • Song Y, Buettner GR, Parkin S, Wagner BA, Robertson LW, Lehmler H. 2008. Chlorination increases the persistence of semiquinone free radicals derived from polychlorinated biphenyl hydroquinones and quinones. J Org Chem 73(21):8296-8304. doi:10.1021/jo801397g PMID:18839991 PMCID:PMC2629131
  • Stemm DN, Tharappel JC, Lehmler H, Srinivasan C, Morris J, Spate VL, Robertson LW, Spear BT, Glauert HP. 2008. Effect of dietary selenium on the promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis by 3,3', 4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl and 2,2', 4,4', 5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 233(3):366-376. doi:10.3181/0708-RM-211 PMID:18296742
  • Tharappel JC, Lehmler H, Srinivasan C, Robertson LW, Spear BT, Glauert HP. 2008. Effect of antioxidant phytochemicals on the hepatic tumor promoting activity of 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-77). Food Chem Toxicol 46(11):3467-3474. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2008.08.023 PMID:18796325 PMCID:PMC2597727
  • Venkatesha VA, Venkataraman S, Sarsour EH, Kalen AL, Buettner GR, Robertson LW, Lehmler H, Goswami PC. 2008. Catalase ameliorates polychlorinated biphenyl-induced cytotoxicity in nonmalignant human breast epithelial cells. Free Radic Biol Med 45(8):1094-1102. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2008.07.007 PMID:18691649 PMCID:PMC2614346


  • Bunaciu RP, Tharappel JC, Lehmler H, Kania-Korwel I, Robertson LW, Srinivasan C, Spear BT, Glauert HP. 2007. The effect of dietary glycine on the hepatic tumor promoting activity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in rats. Toxicology 239(3):147-55. PMID:17703865
  • Kania-Korwel I, Shaikh NS, Hornbuckle KC, Robertson LW, Lehmler H. 2007. Enantioselective disposition of PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl) in C57BL/6 mice after oral and intraperitoneal administration. Chirality 19(1):56-66. doi:10.1002/chir.20342 PMID:17089340
  • Lehmann L, Esch HL, Kirby PA, Robertson LW, Ludewig G. 2007. 4-monochlorobiphenyl (PCB3) induces mutations in the livers of transgenic Fisher 344 rats. Carcinogenesis 28(2):471-478. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgl157 PMID:16950798
  • Ludewig G, Esch HL, Robertson LW. 2007. Polyhalogenierte Bi- und Terphenyle. Chapter 20 in: Handbuch der Lebensmitteltoxikologie. Wiley-VCH Weinheim, Germany. pp.1031-1094.
  • Luthe G, Swenson DC, Robertson LW. 2007. Influence of fluoro-substitution on the planarity of 4-chlorobiphenyl (PCB 3). Acta Crystallogr B 63:319-327. PMID:17374943
  • Sadeghi-aliabadi H, Chan K, Lehmler H, Robertson LW, O-Brian PJ. 2007. Molecular cytotoxic mechanisms of catecholic polychlorinated biphenyl metabolites in isolated rat hepatocytes. Chem Biol Interact 167:184-192. PMID:17408604
  • Zettner M, Flor S, Ludewig G, Wagner J, Robertson LW, Lehmann L. 2007. Quinoid metabolites of 4-monochlorobiphenyl (PCB3) induce gene mutations in cultured Chinese hamster V79 Cells. Toxicol Sci 100:88-98. PMID:17686921


  • Bender RP, Lehmler H, Robertson LW, Ludewig G, Osheroff N. 2006. Polychlorinated biphenyl quinone mtabolites Poison human topoisomerase II: Altering enzyme function by blocking the N-terminal protein gate. Biochemistry 45(33):10140-10152. PMID:16906772
  • Kania-Korwel I, Garrison AW, Avants JK, Hornbuckle KC, Robertson LW, Sulkowski WW, Lehmler H. 2006. Distribution of chiral PCBs in selected tissues in the laboratory rat. Environ Sci Technol 40(12):3704-3710. PMID:16830530
  • Kunz S, Schwarz M, Schilling B, Papke O, Lehmler H, Robertson LW, Schrenk D, Schmitz H. 2006. Tumor promoting potency of PCBs 28 and 101 in rat liver. Toxicol Lett 164(2):133-143. PMID:16426774
  • Liu Y, Apak TI, Lehmler H, Robertson LW, Duffel MW. 2006. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls are substrates and inhibitors of human hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase SULT2A1. Chem Res Toxicol 19(11):1420-1425. PMID:17112228
  • Luthe G, Leonards PE, Reijerink GS, Liu H, Johansen JS, Robertson LW. 2006. Monofluorinated analogues of polybrominated diphenyl ethers as analytical standards: synthesis, NMR, and GC-MS characterization and molecular orbital studies. Environ Sci Technol 40(9):3023-3029. PMID:16719106
  • Ptak A, Ludewig G, Kapiszewska M, Magnowska Z, Lehmler H, Robertson LW, Gregoraszczuk EL. 2006. Induction of cytochromes P450, caspase-3 and DNA damage by PCB3 and its hydroxylated metabolites in porcine ovary. Toxicol Lett 166(3):200-211. PMID:16949219
  • Ptak A, Ludewig G, Robertson LW, Lehmler H, Gregoraszczuk EL. 2006. In vitro exposure of porcine prepubertal follicles to 4-chlorobiphenyl (PCB3) and its hydroxylated metabolites: Effects on sex hormone levels and aromatase activity. Toxicol Lett 164(2):113-122. PMID:16412591
  • Strathmann J, Schwarz M, Tharappel JC, Glauert HP, Spear BT, Robertson LW, Appel KE, Buchmann A. 2006. PCB 153, a non-dioxin-like tumor promoter, selects for beta-catenin (Catnb)-mutated mouse liver tumors. Toxicol Sci 93(1):34-40. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfl041 PMID:16782779
  • Wang L, Lehmler H, Robertson LW, James MO. 2006. Polychlorobiphenylols are selective inhibitors of human phenol sulfotransferase 1A1 with 4-nitrophenol as a substrate. Chem Biol Interact 159(3):235-246. PMID:16413005
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