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Person Details: Stephen A. Boyd

Superfund Research Program

Stephen A. Boyd

Michigan State University
Department of Crop and Soil Science
1066 Bogue Street, Room 532
Plant and Soil Sciences Building
East Lansing, Michigan 48824
Phone: 517-355-0271 x1252
Fax: 517-355-0270


Research Briefs


Hazardous Waste Sites

Atlantic Wood Industries

  • Michigan State University: Geochemical Controls on the Adsorption, Bioavailability, Formation, and Long-term Environmental Fate of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs)

Houston Ship Channel/Galveston Bay

  • Michigan State University: Geochemical Controls on the Adsorption, Bioavailability, Formation, and Long-term Environmental Fate of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs)

Hudson River PCBs

  • Michigan State University: Remediation Product Toxicity Evaluation Core

Velicol Chemical Superfund Site

  • Michigan State University: Geochemical Controls on the Adsorption, Bioavailability, Formation, and Long-term Environmental Fate of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs)



  • Yu K, Lv Y, Liu C, Boyd SA, Teppen BJ, Li H. 2023. Reaction of decabromodiphenyl ether with organo-modified clay-templated zero-valent iron in water-tetrahydrofuran solution: Nano- to micrometric scale effects. J Hazard Mater 445:130538. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.130538


  • Mansouri K, Karmaus AL, Fitzpatrick J, Patlewicz G, Pradeep P, Alberga D, Alepee N, Allen TE, Allen D, Alves VM, Andrade CH, Auernhammer TR, Ballabio D, Bell S, Benfenati E, Bhattacharya S, Bastos JV, Boyd SA, Brown BJ, Capuzzi SJ, Chushak Y, Ciallella H, Clark AM, Consonni V, Daga PR, Ekins S, Farag S, Fedorov M, Fourches D, Gadaleta D, Gao F, Gearhart JM, Goh G, Goodman JM, Grisoni F, Grulke CM, Hartung T, Hirn M, Karpov P, Korotcov A, Lavado GJ, Lawless M, Luechtefeld T, Li X, Lunghini F, Mangiatordi GF, Marcou G, Marsh DE, Martin T, Mauri A, Muratov EN, Myatt GJ, Nguyen D, Nicolotti O, Note R, Pande P, Parks AK, Peryea T, Polash AH, Rallo R, Roncaglioni A, Rowlands C, Ruiz P, Russo DP, Sayed A, Sayre R, Sheils T, Siegel C, Silva AC, Simeonov A, Sosnin S, Southall N, Strickland J, Tang Y, Teppen BJ, Tetko IV, Thomas DG, Tkachenko V, Todeschini R, Toma C, Tripodi I, Trisciuzzi D, Tropsha A, Varnek A, Vukovic K, Wang Z, Wang L, Waters KM, Wedlake AJ, Wijeyesakere SJ, Wilson D, Xiao Z, Yang H, Zahoranszky-Kohalmi G, Zakharov AV, Zhang F, Zhang Z, Zhao T, Zhu H, Zorn KM, Casey W, Kleinstreuer N. 2021. CATMoS: Collaborative Acute Toxicity Modeling Suite. Environ Health Perspect 129(4):47013. doi:10.1289/EHP8495 PMID:33929906 PMCID:PMC8086800
  • Tu Y, Premachandra GS, Boyd SA, Sallach JB, Li H, Teppen BJ, Johnston CT. 2021. Synthesis and evaluation of Fe(3)O(4)-impregnated activated carbon for dioxin removal. Chemosphere 263:128263. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128263 PMID:33297207 PMCID:PMC7733032
  • Yuan Q, Sallach JB, Rhodes G, Bach A, Crawford RB, Li H, Johnston CT, Teppen BJ, Kaminski NE, Boyd SA. 2021. Natural organic matter does not diminish the mammalian bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Chemosphere 264(Pt1):128420. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128420 PMID:33032214 PMCID:PMC7749823 (ahead of print)


  • Chai B, Tsoi TV, Sallach JB, Liu C, Landgraf J, Bezdek M, Zylstra GJ, Li H, Johnston CT, Teppen BJ, Cole JR, Boyd SA, Tiedje JM. 2020. Bioavailability of clay-adsorbed dioxin to Sphingomonas wittichii RW1 and its associated genome-wide shifts in gene expression. Sci Total Environ 712:135525. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135525 PMID:32050392


  • Sallach JB, Crawford RB, Li H, Johnston CT, Teppen BJ, Kaminski NE, Boyd SA. 2019. Activated carbons of varying pore structure eliminate the bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to a mammalian (mouse) model. Sci Total Environ 650:2231-2238. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.09.270


  • Liu C, Chu W, Li H, Boyd SA, Teppen BJ, Mao J, Lehmann J, Zhang W. 2018. Quantification and characterization of dissolved organic carbon from biochars. Geoderma 335:161-169. doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2018.08.019
  • Zhang Y, Boyd SA, Teppen BJ, Tiedje JM, Zhang W, Zhu D, Li H. 2018. Bioavailability of tetracycline to antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in water-clay systems. Environ Pollut 243(PtB):1078-1086. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2018.09.059 PMID:30253298


  • Boyd SA, Sallach JB, Zhang Y, Crawford RB, Li H, Johnston CT, Teppen BJ, Kaminski NE. 2017. Sequestration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin by activated carbon eliminates bioavailability and the suppression of immune function in mice. Environ Toxicol Chem 36(10):2671-2678. doi:10.1002/etc.3815 PMID:28370362
  • Stedtfeld RD, Sallach JB, Crawford RB, Stedtfeld TM, Williams MR, Waseem H, Johnston CT, Li H, Teppen BJ, Kaminski NE, Boyd SA, Tiedje JM, Hashsham SA. 2017. TCDD administered on activated carbon eliminates bioavailability and subsequent shifts to a key murine gut commensal. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 101:7409-7415. doi:10.1007/s00253-017-8460-9 PMID:28812142
  • Zhang S, Liu Q, Gao F, Li X, Liu C, Li H, Boyd SA, Johnston CT, Teppen BJ. 2017. Mechanism associated with kaolinite intercalation with urea: combination of infrared spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation studies. Journal of Physical Chemistry C 121(1):402-409. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b10533 PMID:29657660 PMCID:PMC5896021


  • Chai B, Tsoi TV, Iwai S, Liu C, Fish JA, Gu C, Johnson TA, Zylstra GJ, Teppen BJ, Li H, Hashsham SA, Boyd SA, Cole JR, Tiedje JM. 2016. Sphingomonas wittichii strain RW1 genome-wide gene expression shifts in response to dioxins and clay. PLoS One 11(6):e0157008. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0157008 PMID:27309357 PMCID:PMC4911050
  • Haoting T, Gao J, Li H, Boyd SA, Gu C. 2016. Complete defluorination of perfluorinated compounds by hydrated electrons generated from 3-indole-acetic-acid in organomodified montmorillonite. Sci Rep 6:32949. doi:10.1038/srep32949 PMID:27608658 PMCID:PMC5017190
  • Liu C, Chuang Y, Li H, Teppen BJ, Boyd SA, Gonzalez J, Johnston CT, Lehmann J, Zhang W. 2016. Sorption of lincomycin by manure-derived biochars from water. J Environ Qual 45(2):519-527. doi:10.2134/jeq2015.06.0320 PMID:27065399


  • Liu C, Gu C, Yu K, Li H, Teppen BJ, Johnston CT, Boyd SA, Zhou D. 2015. Integrating structural and thermodynamic mechanisms for sorption of PCBs by montmorillonite. Environ Sci Technol 49(5):2796-2805. doi:10.1021/es505205p PMID:25629399
  • Tian H, Guo Y, Pan B, Gu C, Li H, Boyd SA. 2015. Enhanced photoreduction of nitro-aromatic compounds by hydrated electrons derived from indole on natural montmorillonite. Environ Sci Technol 49(13):7784-7792. doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b01026 PMID:26029791


  • Johnston CT, Khan B, Barth EF, Chattopadhyay S, Boyd SA. 2012. Nature of the interlayer environment in an organoclay optimized for the sequestration of dibenzo-p-dioxin. Environ Sci Technol 46(17):9584-9591. doi:10.1021/es300699y PMID:22856528 PMCID:PMC4327870
  • Liu C, Hui L, Johnston CT, Boyd SA, Teppen BJ. 2012. Relating clay structural factors to dioxin adsorption by smectites: molecular dynamics simulations. Soil Science Society of America Journal 76:110-120. doi:10.2136/sssaj2010.0450
  • Yu K, Gu C, Boyd SA, Liu C, Teppen BJ, Li H, Sun C. 2012. Rapid and extensive debromination of decabromodiphenyl ether by smectite clay-templated subnanoscale zero-valent iron. Environ Sci Technol 46(16):8969-8975. doi:10.1021/es300516e PMID:22846063


  • Boyd SA, Johnston CT, Pinnavaia TJ, Kaminski NE, Teppen BJ, Crawford RB, Kovalova N, Kim SS, Shao H, Gu C, Kaplan BL, Khan B, Li H. 2011. Suppression of humoral immune responses by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin intercalated in smectite clay. Environ Toxicol Chem 30(12):2748-2755. doi:10.1002/etc.701 PMID:21994089
  • Gu C, Liu C, Ding Y, Li H, Teppen BJ, Johnston CT, Boyd SA. 2011. Clay mediated route to natural formation of Polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins. Environ Sci Technol 45(8):3445-3451. doi:10.1021/es104225d PMID:21434682
  • Gu C, Liu C, Johnston CT, Teppen BJ, Li H, Boyd SA. 2011. Pentachlorophenol radical cations generated on Fe(III)-montmorillonite initiate octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin formation in clays: density functional theory and fourier transform infrared studies. Environ Sci Technol 45(4):1399-1406. doi:10.1021/es103324z PMID:21254769 PMCID:PMC3094738
  • Jia H, Gu C, Boyd SA, Teppen BJ, Johnston CT, Li H, Song C. 2011. Comparison of reactivity of nanoscaled zero-valent iron formed on clay surfaces. Soil Science Society of America Journal 75(2):357-364. doi:10.2136/sssaj2010.0080nps
  • Kaplan BL, Crawford RB, Kovalova N, Arencibia A, Kim S, Pinnavaia TJ, Boyd SA, Teppen BJ, Kaminski NE. 2011. TCDD adsorbed on silica as a model for TCDD contaminated soils: evidence for suppression of humoral immunity in mice. Toxicology 282(3):82-87. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2011.01.013 PMID:21272611 PMCID:PMC3089373


  • Boyd SA, Johnston CT, Laird DA, Teppen BJ, Li H. 2010. Comprehensive Study of Organic Contaminant Adsorption by Clays: Methodologies, Mechanisms and Environmental Implications. In: Volume 3, Biophysico-Chemical Processes of Anthropogenic Organic Compounds in Environmental Systems. Wiley, New York, NY.
  • Gu C, Jiang H, Li H, Teppen BJ, Boyd SA. 2010. Synthesis of highly reactive subnano-sized zero-valent iron using smectite clay templates. Environ Sci Technol 44(11):4258-4263. doi:10.1021/es903801r PMID:20446730 PMCID:PMC2892840


  • Liu C, Li H, Teppen BJ, Jonhston CT, Boyd SA. 2009. Mechanisms associated with the high adsorption of dibenzo-p-dioxin from water by smectite clays. Environ Sci Technol 43(8):2777-83. doi:10.1021/es802381z PMID:19475949
  • Rana K, Boyd SA, Teppen BJ, Li H, Liu C, Johnston CT. 2009. Probing the microscopic hydrophobicity of smectite surfaces A vibrational spectroscopic study of dibenzo-p-dioxin sorption to smectite. Phys Chem Chem Phys 11(16):2976-2985. doi:10.1039/b822635k PMID:19421512


  • Cheng G, Li H, Teppen BJ, Boyd SA. 2008. Octachlorodibenzodioxin formation on Fe(III)-montmorillonite clay. Environ Sci Technol 42(13):4758-4763. doi:10.1021/es7029834 PMID:18678002
  • Tsuneta T, Loch-Caruso R, Quensen JF, Boyd SA, Hanna M, Grindatti C. 2008. Stimulatory effects of a microbially dechlorinated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture on rat uterine contraction in vitro. Environ Res 107(2):185-193. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2008.01.011 PMID:18359014 PMCID:PMC2699757


  • Bae J, Mousa MA, Quensen JF, Boyd SA, Loch-Caruso R. 2001. Stimulation of contraction of pregnant rat uterus in vitro by non-dechlorinated and microbially dechlorinated mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls. Environ Health Perspect 109(3):275-282. PMID:11333189


  • Ganey PE, Quensen JF, Mousa MA, Boyd SA, Wagner JG, Fischer L. 2000. Biological activity associated with noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyls after microbial dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254. Environ Toxicol Chem 19:1311-1316.
  • Sheng G, Boyd SA. 2000. Polarity effect on dichlorobenzene sorption by hexadecyltrimethylammonium-clays. Clays and Clay Minerals 48:43-50.


  • Boyd SA, Sheng G. 1999. Contaminant plume management utilising in situ organoclay sorbent zones. In: Natural Microporous Materials in Environmental Technology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands. pp.71-83.
  • Sheng G, Boyd SA. 1999. A dual function organoclay sorbent for lead and chlorobenzene. Soil Science Society of America Journal 63:73-78.
  • Ye D, Quensen JF, Tiedje JM, Boyd SA. 1999. 2-Bromoethanesulfonate, sulfate, molybdate, and ethanesulfonate inhibit anaerobic dechlorination of polychlorobiphenyls by pasteurized microorganisms. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:327-329. PMID:9872802


  • Mousa MA, Ganey PE, Quensen JF, Madhukar BV, Chou K, Giesy JP, Fischer L, Boyd SA. 1998. Altered biological activity of commercial PCB mixtures due to microbial reductive dechlorination. In: Proceedings of the 17th International Symposium on Chlorinated Dioxins and Related Compounds. pp.1-5.
  • Quensen JF, Mousa MA, Boyd SA, Sanderson J, Fruese KL, Giesy JP. 1998. Reduction in aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activity of polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures due to anaerobic microbial dechlorination. Environ Toxicol Chem 17(5):806-813.
  • Rakhshandehroo GR, Wallace RB, Boyd SA, Voice TC. 1998. Hydraulic characteristics of organomodified soils for use in sorptive zone applications. Soil Science Society of America Journal 62(1):5-12.
  • Sheng G, Boyd SA. 1998. Relation of water and neutral organic compounds in the interlayers of mixed Ca/trimethylphenylammonium-smectites. Clays and Clay Minerals 46(1):10-17.
  • Zwiernik MJ, Quensen JF, Boyd SA. 1998. FeSO4 Amendments stimulate extensive anaerobic PCB dechlorination. Environ Sci Technol 32:3360-3365.


  • Angus WG, Mousa MA, Vargas VM, Quensen JF, Boyd SA, Contreras ML. 1997. Inhibition of L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase by polychlorinated biphenyls. Neurotoxicology 18:857-868. PMID:9339832
  • Boyd SA, Kukkadaupa R. 1997. Method of removing organic contaminants from air and water with organophilic, quaternary phosphonium ion-exchanged smectite clays.
  • Sheng G, Boyd SA. 1997. Organoclays/soil modification and their use in pollution prevention and environmental remediation. Nature Magz. China 19:95-104.
  • Sheng G, Xu S, Boyd SA. 1997. Surface heterogeneity of trimethylphenylammonium-smectite as revealed by adsorption of aromatic hydrocarbons from water. Clays and Clay Minerals 45:659-669.
  • Xu S, Sheng G, Boyd SA. 1997. Use of organo-clays in pollution abatement. Advances in Agronomy 59:25-61.


  • Benzing T, Rao P, Boyd SA. 1996. Construction and performance of a gas purge system. J Environ Qual 25:1436-1441.
  • Chibwe M, Ukrainczyk L, Boyd SA, Pinnavaia TJ. 1996. Catalytic properties of biomimetic metallo macrocycles intercalated in layered double hydroxides and smectite clay: the importance of edge-site access. J Mol Catal A Chem 113:249-256.
  • Madhukar BV, Quensen JF, Mousa MA, Fischer L, Boyd SA. 1996. Induction of AP-1 transcription factor activity by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their microbial metabolites. In: Proceedings of the Forum on Environmental Remediation & Environmental Toxicology. Lansing, MI. pp.351-352.
  • Mousa MA, Angus WG, Quensen JF, Contreras ML, Boyd SA. 1996. Distribution of PCBs in PC12 cell culture system and relationship with the levels of DNA and Dopamine. In Vitr Mol Toxicol 9:215-221.
  • Mousa MA, Quensen JF, Chou K, Boyd SA. 1996. Microbial dechlorination alleviates the inhibitory effects of PCBs on mouse gamete fertilization. Environ Sci Technol 30:2087-2092.
  • Sheng G, Xu S, Boyd SA. 1996. Cosorption of organic contaminants from water by hexadecyltrimethylammonium-exchanged clays. Water Res 30:1483-1489.
  • Sheng G, Xu S, Boyd SA. 1996. Mechanism(s) controlling sorption of neutral organic contaminants by surfactant-derived and natural organic matter. Environ Sci Technol 30:1553-1557.
  • Stevens JJ, Anderson SJ, Boyd SA. 1996. FTIR study of competitive water-arene sorption on tetramethylammonium- and trimethylphenylammonium-montmorillonites. Clays and Clay Minerals 44:88-95.


  • Pennell KD, Boyd SA, Abriola LM. 1995. Surface area of soil organic matter reexamined. Soil Science Society of America Journal 59(4):1012-1018.
  • Ukrainczyk L, Chibwe M, Pinnavaia TJ, Boyd SA. 1995. Reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride in water by mineral supported biomimetic cobalt macrocycles. Environ Sci Technol 29:439-445. PMID:22201391
  • Xu S, Boyd SA. 1995. Cationic surfactant sorption to a vermiculitic subsoil via hydrophobic bonding. Environ Sci Technol 29:312-320. PMID:22201376
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