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Person Details: Timothy D. Phillips

Superfund Research Program

Timothy D. Phillips

Texas A&M University
Veterinary Integrative Biosciences
404 Vet. Medical Research Bldg.
4458 TAMU
College Station, Texas 77843-4458
Phone: 979-845-6414
Fax: 979-862-4929


Research Briefs


Hazardous Waste Sites

Houston Ship Channel/Galveston Bay

  • Texas A&M University: Mitigation of Chemical and Mixture Effects Through Broad-Acting Sorbents



  • Rivenbark K, Lilly K, Wang M, Tamamis P, Phillips TD. 2024. Green-engineered clay- and carbon-based composite materials for the adsorption of benzene from air. J Environ Chem Eng 12(1):111836. doi:10.1016/j.jece.2023.111836
  • Rivenbark K, Nikkhah H, Wang M, Beykal B, Phillips TD. 2024. Toxicity of representative organophosphate, organochlorine, phenylurea, dinitroaniline, carbamate, and viologen pesticides to the growth and survival of H. vulgaris, L. minor, and C. elegans. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int doi:10.1007/s11356-024-32444-5 PMID:38396181
  • Wang M, Lilly K, Martin LM, Xu W, Tamamis P, Phillips TD. 2024. Adsorption and removal of polystyrene nanoplastics from water by green-engineered clays. Water Res 249:120944. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2023.120944 PMID:38070346
  • Wang M, Rivenbark K, Nikkhah H, Beykal B, Phillips TD. 2024. In vitro and in vivo remediation of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances by processed and amended clays and activated carbon in soil. Applied Soil Ecology 196:doi:10.1016/j.apsoil.2024.105285 PMID:38463139 PMCID:10919550
  • Wang M, Rivenbark K, Phillips TD. 2024. Kinetics of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid sorption onto montmorillonite clays in soil and their translocation to genetically modified corn. J Environ Sci (China) 135:669-680. doi:10.1016/j.jes.2023.02.006 PMID:37778837 PMCID:PMC10542765



  • Hearon S, Orr AA, Moyer H, Wang M, Tamamis P, Phillips TD. 2022. Montmorillonite clay-based sorbents decrease the bioavailability of per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) from soil and their translocation to plants. Environ Res 205:doi:10.1016/j.envres.2021.112433 PMID:34875259 PMCID:PMC8760172
  • Martin LM, Sheng J, Zimba PV, Zhu L, Fadare OO, Haley C, Wang M, Phillips TD, Conkle J, Xu W. 2022. Testing an iron oxide nanoparticle-based method for magnetic separation of nanoplastics and microplastics from water. Nanomaterials 12(14):PMID:35889573
  • Rivenbark K, Wang M, Lilly K, Tamamis P, Phillips TD. 2022. Development and characterization of chlorophyll-amended montmorillonite clays for the adsorption and detoxification of benzene. Water Res 221:doi:10.1016/j.watres.2022.118788
  • Wang M, Phillips TD. 2022. Inclusion of montmorillonite clays in environmental barrier formulations to reduce skin exposure to water-soluble chemicals from polluted water. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces doi:10.1021/acsami.2c04676 PMID:35536196
  • Wang M, Rivenbark K, Phillips TD. 2022. Adsorption and detoxification of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid by montmorillonite clays. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int doi:10.1007/s11356-022-22927-8 PMID:36097303


  • Hearon S, Wang M, McDonald TJ, Phillips TD. 2021. Decreased bioavailability of aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in genetically modified corn with activated carbon or calcium montmorillonite clay inclusion in soil. J Environ Sci (China) 100:131-143. doi:10.1016/j.jes.2020.06.029 PMID:33279026 PMCID:PMC7719843
  • Jolly PE, Mazariegos M, Contreras H, Balas N, Junkins A, Aina IO, Minott S, Wang M, Phillips TD. 2021. Aflatoxin exposure among mothers and their infants from the western highlands of Guatemala. Matern Child Health J 25:doi:10.1007/s10995-021-03151-1 PMID:33945085 PMCID:PMC8404172
  • Orr AA, Wang M, Beykal B, Ganesh HS, Hearon S, Pistikopoulos EN, Phillips TD, Tamamis P. 2021. Combining experimental isotherms, minimalistic simulations, and a model to understand and predict chemical adsorption onto montmorillonite clays. ACS Omega 6(22):14090-14103. doi:10.1021/acsomega.1c00481 PMID:34124432 PMCID:PMC8190805
  • Wang M, Chen Z, Rusyn I, Phillips TD. 2021. Testing the efficacy of broad-acting sorbents for environmental mixtures using isothermal analysis, mammalian cells, and H. vulgaris. J Hazard Mater 408:124425. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124425 PMID:33162237 PMCID:PMC7904642
  • Wang M, Orr AA, Jakubowski JM, Bird KE, Casey CM, Hearon S, Tamamis P, Phillips TD. 2021. Enhanced adsorption of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) by edible, nutrient-amended montmorillonite clays. Water Res 188:116534. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2020.116534 PMID:33125992 PMCID:PMC7725962
  • Wang M, Rivenbark K, Gong J, Wright FA, Phillips TD. 2021. Application of edible montmorillonite clays for the adsorption and detoxification of microcystin. ACS Appl Bio Mater 4(9):7254-7265. doi:10.1021/acsabm.1c00779




  • Onel M, Beykal B, Wang M, Grimm FA, Zhou L, Wright FA, Phillips TD, Rusyn I, Pistikopoulos EN. 2018. Optimal chemical grouping and sorbent material design by data analysis, modeling and dimensionality reduction techniques. Computer Aided Chemical Engineering 43:421-426. doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-64235-6.50076-0 PMID:30534632
  • Phillips TD, Wang M, Elmore SE, Hearon S, Wang J. 2018. NovaSil clay for the protection of humans and animals from aflatoxins and other contaminants. Clays and Clay Minerals 67(1):99-110. doi:10.1007/s42860-019-0008-x



  • Taylor JF, Robinson A, Mitchell NJ, Marroquin-Cardona A, Johnson N, Elmore SE, Romoser AA, Phillips TD. 2013. In vivo efficacy of ferrihydrite as an enterosorbent for arsenic: Short-term evaluation in rodents. J Toxicol Environ Health A 76:167-175. doi:10.1080/15287394.2013.752322 PMID:23356646


  • Taylor JF, Robinson A, Johnson N, Marroquin-Cardona A, Brattin B, Taylor RJ, Phillips TD. 2009. In vitro evaluation of ferrihydrite as an enterosorbent for arsenic from contaminated drinking water. Environ Sci Technol 43(14):5501-6. doi:10.1021/es803624b PMID:19708388 PMCID:PMC2735052


  • Phillips TD, Afriyie-Gyawu E, Williams J, Huebner HJ, Ankrah N, Ofori-Adjei D, Jolly PE, Johnson N, Taylor JF, Marroquin-Cardona A, Xu L, Tang LS, Wang J. 2008. Reducing human exposure to aflatoxin through the use of clay: a review. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 25(2):134-145. doi:10.1080/02652030701567467 PMID:18286403


  • Dash B, Afriyie-Gyawu E, Huebner HJ, Porter WW, Wang J, Jolly PE, Phillips TD. 2007. Determinants of the variability of aflatoxin-albumin adduct levels in Ghanaians. J Toxicol Environ Health A 70(1):58-66. doi:10.1080/15287390600748880 PMID:17162498
  • Dash B, Metz RP, Huebner HJ, Porter WW, Phillips TD. 2007. Molecular characterization of two superoxide dismutases from Hydra vulgaris. Gene 387(1-2):93-108. PMID:17150313


  • Dash B, Afriyie-Gyawu E, Huebner HJ, Porter WW, Wang J, Jolly PE, Phillips TD. 2006. Noninvasive identification of interindividual variation in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes: implications for cancer epidemiology and biomarker studies. J Toxicol Environ Health A 69(13):1203-1216. PMID:16754536
  • Jolly PE, Jiang Y, Ellis W, Awuah R, Nnedu O, Phillips TD, Wang J, Afriyie-Gyawu E, Tang L, Person S, Williams J, Jolly CM. 2006. Determinants of aflatoxin levels in Ghanaians: Sociodemographic factors, knowledge of aflatoxin and food handling and consumption practices. Int J Hyg Environ Health 209(4):345-358. PMID:16644281


  • Afriyie-Gyawu E, Mackie J, Dash B, Wiles MC, Taylor JF, Huebner HJ, Tang L, Guan H, Wang J, Phillips TD. 2005. Chronic toxicological evaluation of dietary NovaSil clay in Sprague-Dawley rats. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 22(3):259-169. PMID:16019794
  • Afriyie-Gyawu E, Wiles MC, Richardson MB, Fickey C, Phillips TD. 2005. Prevention of zearalenone-induced hyperestrogenism in prepubertal mice. J Toxicol Environ Health A 68(5):353-368. PMID:15799627
  • Ottinger SE, Barhoumi R, McKenzie KS, McDonald TJ, Burghardt RC, Huebner HJ, Phillips TD. 2005. FIA/MS analysis of temporally ozonated benzo[a]pyrene and pyrene and their reaction products: inhibition of gap junction-mediated intercellular communication. Chemosphere 60(8):1025-1033. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.01.025 PMID:15993149
  • Wang J, Luo H, Billam M, Wang Z, Guan H, Tang L, Goldston T, Afriyie-Gyawu E, Lovett C, Griswold J, Brattin B, Taylor RJ, Huebner HJ, Phillips TD. 2005. Short-term safety evaluation of processed calcium montmorillonite clay (NovaSil) in humans. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 22(3):270-279. PMID:16019795
  • Wiles MC, Huebner HJ, McDonald TJ, Donnelly KC, Phillips TD. 2005. Matrix-immobilized organoclay for the sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pentachlorophenol from groundwater. Chemosphere 59(10):1455-1464. PMID:15876388


  • Herrera P, Burghardt RC, Huebner HJ, Phillips TD. 2004. The efficacy of sand-immobilized organoclays as filtration bed materials for bacteria. Food Microbiol 21(1):1-10.
  • Pimpukdee K, Kubena LF, Bailey CA, Huebner HJ, Afriyie-Gyawu E, Phillips TD. 2004. Aflatoxin-induced toxicity and depletion of hepatic vitamin A in young broiler chicks: protection of chicks in the presence of low levels of NovaSil PLUS in the diet. Poultry Science 83(5):737-744. PMID:15141830
  • Wiles MC, Huebner HJ, Afriyie-Gyawu E, Taylor RJ, Bratton GR, Phillips TD. 2004. Toxicological evaluation and metal bioavailability in pregnant rats following exposure to clay minerals in the diet. J Toxicol Environ Health A 67(11):863-874. doi:10.1080/15287390490425777 PMID:15205041


  • Ake CL, Wiles MC, Huebner HJ, McDonald TJ, Cosgriff D, Richardson MB, Donnelly KC, Phillips TD. 2003. Porous organoclay composite for the sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pentachlorophenol from groundwater. Chemosphere 51(9):835-844. doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(03)00040-7 PMID:12697173
  • Bingham AK, Phillips TD, Bauer JE. 2003. Potential for dietary protection against the effects of aflatoxins in animals. J Am Vet Med Assoc 222(5):591-596. doi:10.2460/javma.2003.222.591 PMID:12619837
  • Huebner HJ, Phillips TD. 2003. Clay-based affinity probes for selective cleanup and determination of aflatoxin B1 using nanostructured montmorillonite on quartz. J AOAC Int 86(3):534-539. PMID:12852572
  • Lum KT, Huebner HJ, Li Y, Phillips TD, Raushel FM. 2003. Organophosphate nerve agent toxicity in Hydra attenuata. Chem Res Toxicol 16(8):953-957. PMID:12924922
  • Meek IB, Peplow AW, Ake CL, Phillips TD, Beremand MN. 2003. Tri1 encodes the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase for C-8 hydroxylation during trichothecene biosynthesis in Fusarium sporotrichioides and resides upstream of another new Tri gene. Appl Environ Microbiol 69(3):1607-1613. PMID:12620849
  • Peplow AW, Meek IB, Wiles MC, Phillips TD, Beremand MN. 2003. Tri16 is required for esterification of position C-8 during trichothecene mycotoxin production by Fusarium sporotrichioides. Appl Environ Microbiol 69(10):5935-5940. PMID:14532047
  • Phillips TD, Lemke SL, Grant PG. 2003. Characterization of clay-based enterosorbents for the prevention of aflatoxicosis. In: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, NY. pp.157-173.


  • Ake CL, Mayura K, Huebner HJ, Bratton GR, Phillips TD. 2001. Development of porous clay-based composites for the sorption of lead from water. J Toxicol Environ Health A 63(6):459-475. PMID:11482800
  • Lemke SL, Mayura K, Reeves WR, Wang N, Fickey C, Phillips TD. 2001. Investigation of organophilic montmorillonite clay inclusion in zearalenone-contaminated diets using the mouse uterine weight bioassay. J Toxicol Environ Health A 62(4):243-258. doi:10.1080/009841001459405 PMID:11245394
  • Lemke SL, Ottinger SE, Ake CL, Mayura K, Phillips TD. 2001. Deamination of fumonisin B1 and biological assessment of reaction product toxicity. Chem Res Toxicol 14(1):11-15. PMID:11170503
  • Lemke SL, Ottinger SE, Mayura K, Ake CL, Pimpukdee K, Wang N, Phillips TD. 2001. Development of a multi-tiered approach to the in vitro prescreening of clay-based enterosorbents. Animal Feed Science and Technology 93(1-2):17-29. doi:10.1016/S0377-8401(01)00272-3
  • Reeves WR, Barhoumi R, Burghardt RC, Lemke SL, Mayura K, McDonald TJ, Phillips TD, Donnelly KC. 2001. Evaluation of methods for predicting the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures. Environ Sci Technol 35(8):1630-1636. doi:10.1021/es001689a PMID:11329713


  • Barhoumi R, Mouneimne Y, Ramos KS, Safe SH, Phillips TD, Centonze VE, Ainley C, Gupta MS, Burghardt RC. 2000. Analysis of Benzo[a]pyrene partitioning and cellular homeostasis in a rat liver cell line. Toxicol Sci 53:264-270. PMID:10696774
  • Herrera P, Burghardt RC, Phillips TD. 2000. Adsorption of Salmonella enteritidis by cetyl pyridinium exchanged montmorillonite clays. Vet Microbiol 74:259-272. PMID:10808094
  • Huebner HJ, Mayura K, Pallaroni L, Ake CL, Lemke SL, Phillips TD. 2000. Development and characterization of a carbon-based composite for reducing patulin levels in apple juice. J Food Prot 63(1):106-110. PMID:10643778
  • Tag A, Hicks J, Garifullina G, Ake CL, Phillips TD, Beremand MN, Keller NP. 2000. G-protein signaling mediates differential production of toxic secondary metabolites. EMBO J 38(3):658-665. PMID:11069688


  • Huebner HJ, Lemke SL, Mayura K, Phillips TD, Ottinger SE. 1999. Molecular characterization of high affinity, high capacity clays for the equilibrium sorption of ergotamine. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 16(4):159-171. doi:10.1080/026520399284118 PMID:10560569
  • Lemke SL, Mayura K, Ottinger SE, McKenzie KS, Wang N, Fickey C, Kubena LF, Phillips TD. 1999. Assessment of the estrogenic effects of zearalenone after treatment with ozone utilizing the mouse uterine weight bioassay. J Toxicol Environ Health A 56(4):283-295. doi:10.1080/009841099158114 PMID:10706245
  • Mayura K, Huebner HJ, Dwyer MR, McKenzie KS, Donnelly KC, Kubena LF, Phillips TD. 1999. Multi-bioassay approach for assessing the potency of complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Chemosphere 38(8):1721-1732. PMID:10101844
  • Ottinger SE, Mayura K, Lemke SL, McKenzie KS, Wang N, Kubena LF, Phillips TD. 1999. Utilization of electrochemically generated ozone in the degradation and detoxification of benzo[a]pyrene. J Toxicol Environ Health A 56(8):565-583. doi:10.1080/009841099157511 PMID:10515574
  • Phillips TD. 1999. Dietary clay in the chemoprevention of aflatoxin-induced disease. Toxicol Sci 52:118-126. PMID:10630600
  • Springman KR, Mayura K, McDonald TJ, Donnelly KC, Kubena LF, Phillips TD. 1999. Organoclay adsorption of wood-preserving waste from groundwater. Environ Toxicol Chem 71(1-2):247-259.


  • Clark KJ, Grant PG, Sarr AB, Belakere JR, Swaggerty CL, Phillips TD, Woode GN. 1998. An in vitro study of theaflavins extracted from black tea to neutralize bovine rotavirus and bovine coronavirus infections. Vet Microbiol 63(2-4):147-157. doi:10.1016/S0378-1135(98)00242-9 PMID:9850995
  • Clark KJ, Sarr AB, Grant PG, Phillips TD, Woode GN. 1998. In vitro studies on the use of clay, clay minerals and charcoal to adsorb bovine rotavirus and bovine coronavirus. Vet Microbiol 63:137-146. PMID:9850994
  • Grant PG, Lemke SL, Dwyer MR, Phillips TD. 1998. Modified Langmuir equation for S-shaped and multi-site isotherm plots. Langmuir 14:4292-4299.
  • Grant PG, Phillips TD. 1998. Isothermal adsorption of aflatoxin B1 on HSCAS clay. J Agric Food Chem 46:599-605. PMID:10554284
  • Lemke SL, Grant PG, Phillips TD. 1998. Adsorption of zearalenone by organophilic montmorillonite clay. J Agric Food Chem 46:3789-3796.
  • Lopez Y, Keller NP, Sarr AB, Phillips TD, Cuero RG, Smith OD. 1998. Visual estimation of aflatoxin production in peanut with Aspergillus norsolorinic acid mutants. Peanut Science 25:92-99.
  • Mayura K, Abdel-Wahhab MA, McKenzie KS, Sarr AB, Edwards JF, Naguib K, Phillips TD. 1998. Prevention of maternal and developmental toxicity in rats via dietary inclusion of common aflatoxin sorbents: Potential for hidden risks. Toxicol Sci 41:175-182. PMID:9520353
  • McKenzie KS, Kubena LF, Denvir AJ, Rogers TD, Hitchens GD, Bailey RH, Harvey RB, Buckley SG, Phillips TD. 1998. Aflatoxicosis in turkey poults is prevented by treatment of naturally-contaminated corn with ozone generated by electrolysis. Poultry Science 77:1094-1102. PMID:9706072


  • Donnelly KC, Phillips TD, Onufrock AM, Collie SL, Huebner HJ. 1997. Genotoxicity model and complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment: Biomarkers and Risk Assessment. ASTM Special Tech. Publ. 1071-720X, Vol. 1306, Am. Soc. for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA. pp.138-148.
  • Dwyer MR, Kubena LF, Harvey RB, Mayura K, Sarr AB, Buckley SG, Bailey RH, Phillips TD. 1997. Effects of inorganic adsorbents and cyclopiazonic acid in broiler chickens. Poultry Science 76:1141-1149. PMID:9251144
  • McKenzie KS, Sarr AB, Mayura K, Bailey RH, Miller DR, Rogers TD, Norred WP, Voss KA, Plattner RD, Kubena LF, Phillips TD. 1997. Oxidative degradation and detoxification of mycotoxins using a novel source of ozone. Food Chem Toxicol 35(8):807-820. doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(97)00052-5 PMID:9350226
  • Zhao F, Mayura K, Kocurek N, Edwards JF, Kubena LF, Safe SH, Phillips TD. 1997. Inhibition of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl-induced chicken embryotoxicity by 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl. Fundam Appl Toxicol 35:1-8. PMID:9024668
  • Zhao F, Mayura K, Safe SH, Phillips TD, Harper N. 1997. Inhibition of 3,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl induced fetal cleft palate and immunotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice by 2,2',4,4',5,5'-Hexacholorobiphenyl. Chemosphere 34(5-7):1605-1613. doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(97)00456-6 PMID:9134691


  • Barhoumi R, Mouneimne Y, Phillips TD, Safe SH, Burghardt RC. 1996. Alteration of oxytocin-induced calcium oscillations in Clone 9 cells by toxin-exposure. Fundam Appl Toxicol 33:220-228. PMID:8921340
  • Washburn KS, Huebner HJ, Safe SH, Phillips TD, Donnelly KC. 1996. Development of an Instrumental Fractionation and Quantitation Scheme for Selected Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons Present in extracts from Wood-Preserving Waste. In: Proceedings of the Hazardous Substance Research Center (HSRC) / Waste-Management Education & Research Consortium Joint Conference on the Environment. pp.400-407.


  • Safe SH, Washburn KS, Zacharewski TR, Phillips TD. 1995. Synthesis and characterization of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) identified in human serum. Chemosphere 31(4):3017-3023. doi:10.1016/0045-6535(95)00162-2 PMID:7552046
  • Washburn KS, Phillips TD. 1995. Development of a field-practical assay for water-solvated chlorophenols. J Hazard Mater 41:371-381.
  • Zhao F, Mayura K, Hutchinson RW, Lewis RP, Burghardt RC, Phillips TD. 1995. Developmental toxicity and structure-activity relationships of chlorophenols using human embryonic palatal mesenchymal cells. Toxicol Lett 78(1):35-42. doi:10.1016/0378-4274(95)99684-A PMID:7604397
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