Skip Navigation
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it’s official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.


The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Internet Explorer is no longer a supported browser.

This website may not display properly with Internet Explorer. For the best experience, please use a more recent browser such as the latest versions of Google Chrome, Microsoft Edge, and/or Mozilla Firefox. Thank you.

Your Environment. Your Health.

Progress Reports: University of Washington: Role of Paraoxonases (PONs) in Modulating Cadmium and Manganese Neurotoxicity

Superfund Research Program

Role of Paraoxonases (PONs) in Modulating Cadmium and Manganese Neurotoxicity

Project Leader: Clement E. Furlong
Co-Investigators: Lucio G. Costa, Judit Marsillach Lopez
Grant Number: P42ES004696
Funding Period: 2009-2022
View this project in the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT)

Learn More About the Grantee

Visit the grantee's eNewsletter page Visit the grantee's Twitter page Visit the grantee's Video page

Progress Reports

Year:   2019  2018  2017  2016  2015  2014  2013  2011  2010  2009 

The studies by Clement Furlong, Ph.D., and his research team on factors that inhibit the activity of the antioxidant protein PON1 that protects HDL and LDL from oxidation demonstrated that products of lipid oxidation resulting from oxidative stress from exposure to cadmium (Cd) or manganese (Mn) significantly inhibit the activity of PON1, in some cases at concentrations of lipid peroxidation products that are not considered pathological. The research team’s earlier results suggested that the related mitochondrial-associated protein PON2 protected PON1 from inhibition most likely through modulating oxidative stress in mitochondria. The generation of recombinant mouse PON2 will allow the researchers to directly examine the protective role of PON2 modulating oxidative stress related to disease. The research team have re-designed and synthesized mouse PON2 cDNA and are currently expressing it in different strains of E. coli. The use of PON2-deficient mice provides a platform for examining the role of PON2 in the dopaminergic system that is important in Parkinson’s disease. There is an upregulation of PON2 mRNA and protein expression in cerebellar granule neurons with a dopamine receptor 2 agonist. The PON2-deficient mice showed impaired motor coordination independently of exposure. This has been confirmed in a new cohort of WT and PON2-deficient littermate mice. The researchers have also found evidence of Mn-derived impairment in memory in PON2-deficient mice, as well as significant increased body weight in Mn-treated male PON2-deficient mice. The data generated to date indicate that high levels of PON2 protect PON1 from the effects of oxidative stress providing an explanation for the lower frequency of cardiovascular disease and Parkinson’s disease in pre-menopausal females.

to Top