Skip Navigation
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it’s official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.


The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Your Environment. Your Health.

Project Publications: Duke University: Cholinergic and Monoaminergic Mechanisms of Persistent Neurobehavioral Toxicity

Superfund Research Program

Cholinergic and Monoaminergic Mechanisms of Persistent Neurobehavioral Toxicity

Project Leader: Edward D. Levin
Co-Investigators: Theodore A. Slotkin (Duke University Medical Center), Frederic J. Seidler
Grant Number: P42ES010356
Funding Period: 2017-2022
View this project in the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT)

Learn More About the Grantee

Visit the grantee's eNewsletter page Visit the grantee's eNewsletter page Visit the grantee's Twitter page Visit the grantee's Instagram page Visit the grantee's Facebook page Visit the grantee's Video page



  • Hawkey AB, Pippen E, Kenou B, Holloway Z, Slotkin TA, Seidler FJ, Levin ED. 2022. Persistent neurobehavioral and neurochemical anomalies in middle-aged rats after maternal diazinon exposure. Toxicology 472:153189. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2022.153189 PMID:35452779


  • Boyda J, Hawkey AB, Holloway Z, Trevisan R, Di Giulio RT, Levin ED. 2021. The organophosphate insecticide diazinon and aging: Neurobehavioral and mitochondrial effects in zebrafish exposed as embryos or during aging. Neurotoxicol Teratol 87:doi:10.1016/ PMID:34224825 PMCID:PMC8440393
  • Hawkey AB, Holloway Z, Levin ED. 2021. A behavioral test battery to assess larval and adult zebrafish after developmental neurotoxic exposure. Experimental Neurotoxicology Methods 172:353-380. doi:10.1007/978-1-0716-1637-6_16
  • Holloway Z, Hawkey AB, Asrat H, Boinapally N, Levin ED. 2021. The use of tocofersolan as a rescue agent in larval zebrafish exposed to benzo[a]pyrene in early development. Neurotoxicology 86:78-84. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2021.07.003 PMID:34273383
  • Levin ED. 2021. Invited Perspective: Does developmental adaptation pose risks with changing toxicant exposures?. Environ Health Perspect 129(8):81302. doi:10.1289/ehp9560 PMID:34383604 PMCID:PMC8360002
  • Pan WK, Weinhouse C, Ortiz EJ, Berky AJ, Fixsen E, Mallipudi A, Feingold BJ, Navio S, Rivera NA, Hsu-Kim H, Miranda JJ. 2021. CoNaMad-Cohorte de Nacimiento de Madre de Dios / Madre de Dios Birth Cohort to Study Effects of in-utero Trace Metals Exposure in the Southern Peruvian Amazon. Ann Glob Health 87:doi:10.5334/aogh.3152 PMID:34327116 PMCID:PMC8300581
  • Slotkin TA, Levin ED, Seidler FJ. 2021. Paternal cannabis exposure prior to mating, but not 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, elicits deficits in dopaminergic synaptic activity in the offspring. Toxicol Sci 184(2):doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfab117 PMID:34590702




  • Glazer L, Hawkey AB, Wells C, Drastal M, Odamah K, Behl M, Levin ED. 2018. Developmental exposure to low concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants causes life-long behavioral alterations in zebrafish. Toxicol Sci 165(2):487-498. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfy173 PMID:29982741 PMCID:PMC6154272
  • Glazer L, Wells C, Drastal M, Odamah K, Galat RE, Behl M, Levin ED. 2018. Developmental exposure to low concentrations of two brominated flame retardants, BDE-47 and BDE-99, causes life-long behavioral alterations in zebrafish. Neurotoxicology 66:221-232. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2017.09.007 PMID:28935585 PMCID:PMC5858967
  • Massarsky A, Abdel A, Glazer L, Levin ED, Di Giulio RT. 2018. Neurobehavioral effects of 1,2-propanediol in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Neurotoxicology 65:111-124. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2018.02.007 PMID:29432853
  • Oliveri A, Ortiz E, Levin ED. 2018. Developmental exposure to an organophosphate flame retardant alters later behavioral responses to dopamine antagonism in zebrafish larvae. Neurotoxicol Teratol 67:25-30. doi:10.1016/ PMID:29559250 PMCID:PMC5970957
  • Pitt JA, Trevisan R, Massarsky A, Kozal JS, Levin ED, Di Giulio RT. 2018. Maternal transfer of nanoplastics to offspring in zebrafish (Danio rerio): A case study with nanopolystyrene. Sci Total Environ 643:324-334. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.06.186 PMID:29940444
  • Slotkin TA, Skavicus S, Seidler FJ. 2018. Developmental neurotoxicity resulting from pharmacotherapy of preterm labor, modeled In Vitro: Terbutaline and dexamethasone, separately and together. Toxicology 30033-30037. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2018.03.001 PMID:29524569 PMCID:PMC5903951


  • Slotkin TA, Skavicus S, Card JA, Di Giulio RT, Seidler FJ. 2017. In vitro models reveal differences in the developmental neurotoxicity of an environmental polycylic aromatic hydrocarbon mixture compared to benzo[a]pyrene: Neuronotypic PC12 Cells and embryonic neural stem cells. Toxicology 377:49-56. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2016.12.008 PMID:28049045 PMCID:PMC5250555
  • Slotkin TA, Skavicus S, Seidler FJ. 2017. Diazinon and parathion diverge in their effects on development of noradrenergic systems. Brain Res Bull 130:268-273. doi:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2017.02.004 PMID:28235599
  • Slotkin TA, Skavicus S, Stapleton HM, Seidler FJ. 2017. Brominated and organophosphate flame retardants target different neurodevelopmental stages, characterized with embryonic neural stem cells and neuronotypic PC12 cells. Toxicology 390:32-42. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2017.08.009 PMID:28851516 PMCID:PMC5633518


  • Abreu-Villaca Y, Levin ED. 2016. Developmental neurobehavioral neurotoxicity of insecticides. In: Handbook of Development Neurotoxicology. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. pp.453-466.
to Top