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Your Environment. Your Health.

Research Briefs by Year: 2018

Superfund Research Program

  • 277 - Using Saliva to Understand Exposures and Monitor Health -- Rappaport
    Release Date: 01/10/2018

    Collecting saliva may be a practical alternative to blood for characterizing a person's exposures, according to new research from the Superfund Research Program (SRP) Center at the University of California (UC), Berkeley. The researchers found that saliva contains a rich set of molecular information that can be used to construct individual exposure histories and discover risk factors for chronic diseases.

  • 278 - Chronic Inflammation Suppresses Immune Cells that Fight Liver Cancer -- Karin
    Release Date: 02/07/2018

    Researchers at the University of California San Diego (UCSD) showed that chronic liver inflammation can promote cancer by suppressing one of the body's natural mechanisms to fight cancer development. The study, funded in part by the Superfund Research Program (SRP), explains the success of some types of cancer immunotherapy and suggests novel targets for new therapies.

  • 279 - Developing Training and Education for Emerging Technologies -- Raynor, Brisolara, Geltman, Herrick
    Release Date: 03/07/2018

    The Superfund Research Program (SRP) Occupational and Safety Training Education Programs on Emerging Technologies (R25) grants are awarded to institutes of higher education to support activities that complement or enhance workforce training that meets the nation's biomedical, behavioral, and clinical research needs. This includes the development of educational activities, curricula, tools, and methods for industrial hygienists and graduate students involved in the research, evaluation, management, and handling of hazardous substances.

  • 280 - Toxic Byproducts Formed During UV Water Treatment -- Sedlak
    Release Date: 04/04/2018

    Common water treatment methods that remove phenols and other hazardous compounds may produce low levels of toxic byproducts, according to a new study by the University of California (UC), Berkeley Superfund Research Program (SRP) Center.

  • 281 - AHR is Required for Normal Organ Development and Behavioral Responses in Zebrafish -- Tanguay
    Release Date: 05/02/2018

    New research demonstrates the important function of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in normal organ development, reproduction, fertility, and behavior. The results of the study, out of the Oregon State University Superfund Research Program Center (OSU SRP Center), may help researchers understand the target organs and molecular mechanisms involved in toxicity to environmental contaminants that require AHR, a protein required for organisms to develop properly.

  • 282 - Dust from Mine Waste in Navajo Nation May Harm Lungs and Heart -- Campen
    Release Date: 06/06/2018

    Particles in dust from abandoned uranium mines may be damaging to the lungs and heart, according to new research from the University of New Mexico Superfund Research Program (UNM SRP) Center. The researchers showed that exposure to particles less than 10 micrometers in diameter (PM10) from an old uranium mine, compared to PM10 from an area not impacted by a mine, led to increased pulmonary and cardiac toxicity in mice, as well as higher levels of inflammation and oxidative stress in cells.

  • 283 - Researchers Identify Compounds that Reduce Abnormal Blood Vessel Growth in the Eye -- Hammock
    Release Date: 07/11/2018

    Scientists have identified key compounds produced when the body metabolizes omega fatty acids that can reduce the severity of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in mice. By increasing these lipid metabolites and preventing them from degrading, the researchers reduced abnormal blood vessel growth, in part by regulating the movement of inflammatory immune cells into the retina.

  • 284 - Researchers Pinpoint Molecule Fueling Liver Cancer Development -- Karin
    Release Date: 08/01/2018

    New research out of the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Superfund Research Program (SRP) Center explains how liver cells with DNA damage manage to survive and divide, fueling liver cancer. The study highlights the importance of a family of molecules called CD44 proteins, which are located on the surface of cells.

  • 285 - Why Shallow Lake Food Webs May Have More Arsenic -- Neumann
    Release Date: 09/05/2018

    Lake properties impact the amount of arsenic that transfers from sediments into the aquatic food web, according to a new SRP study. Researchers discovered high concentrations of arsenic in the water and plankton of well-mixed shallow lakes.

  • 286 - Siderophores Reduce Asbestos Toxicity in Soil -- Willenbring, Christofidou-Solomidou
    Release Date: 10/03/2018

    Researchers have discovered that natural compounds released from bacteria and fungi in soil, known as siderophores, can decrease the toxicity of asbestos fibers. According to the authors, their results support the feasibility of asbestos bioremediation, or using organisms such as bacteria to degrade contaminants at waste sites.

  • 287 - PCBs Increase Inflammation, Disrupt Gut Microbiome, and Alter Metabolism -- Hennig
    Release Date: 11/07/2018

    Researchers have discovered that exposure to certain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can increase inflammation in the intestines, alter normal gut microbiota, and disrupt metabolism. They suggest that some of the observed health impacts of PCBs may be initiated in the gut and that changes in the gut microbiota may offer a marker for pollutant exposures.

  • 288 - Alternative Flame Retardants May Lead to Neurobehavioral Effects -- Levin
    Release Date: 12/05/2018

    Organophosphate flame retardant (OPFR) exposure early in life may be linked to behavioral impacts into adulthood, according to a new study in zebrafish. The results provide evidence that OPFRs, which have been introduced in commercial products in the past decade, may not be a safe alternative to brominated flame retardants, which were phased out because they were found to be harmful to normal development.

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