Risk and Exposure Assessment
Superfund Research Program
Research Briefs By Category: Risk and Exposure Assessment
- 267 - Cell-Based Models Reveal Differences in How PAH Mixtures Affect Neurodevelopment -- Slotkin
Release Date: 03/01/2017
Exposure to a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may produce different neurodevelopmental effects from those of exposure to individual PAHs, and the developing brain may be sensitive to these contaminants over a wide window of development, according to a Duke University Superfund Research Program (SRP) Center study.
- 264 - The Porous Extraction Paddle: A Non-Targeted Sampling Device to Detect Contaminants in Urine -- Giese
Release Date: 12/07/2016
A new tool and accompanying method provides an easy way to extract substances from urine, even where resources are limited. The non-targeted technique, developed by researchers at the Northeastern University Superfund Research Program, can reveal large numbers of exposures to substances foreign to the body, called xenobiotics, from a sample of urine.
- 261 - Importance of Young Dissolved Organic Carbon to the Release of Arsenic in Aquifers -- Bostick
Release Date: 09/07/2016
Carbon from relatively new sources of organic material on the surface, or young carbon, can stimulate microbial communities deep in aquifers, leading to the release of arsenic into water, according to a recent field study by Columbia University Superfund Research Program (SRP) Center researchers. The researchers found that near-surface sources of organic carbon are central in microbial metabolism, even in aquifers that are far below and separated from the land where carbon is derived.
- 243 - Detecting Environmental Chemicals with Novel Immunoassay Technology -- Pan
Release Date: 03/04/2015
A new low-cost portable device uses a smart phone to detect the presence and concentrations of BDE-47 (2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether), a type of flame retardant and widespread environmental contaminant. The device uses a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) platform to perform microscale enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), a popular lab technique that uses antibodies designed to measure a specific substance in a sample. The LOC platform performed comparably to the standard ELISA laboratory protocol but in much less time and with much smaller sample sizes.
- 242 - Assessing and Reducing Health Risks from Arsenic in Private Well Water -- Zheng
Release Date: 02/04/2015
We are at a crossroads when it comes to reducing the risk of adverse health outcomes from arsenic in private well water in the United States, according to Yan Zheng, Ph.D., professor at the City University of New York and community engagement leader at the Columbia University Superfund Research Program (CU SRP), and Joseph Ayotte, P.G., a U.S. Geological Survey hydrologist. They claim we have a better understanding of factors influencing arsenic occurrence in well water and its health effects, but little knowledge about what actions households with private wells have taken to reduce arsenic exposure and the reasons for taking those actions.
- 238 - Measuring Vapor Intrusion to Estimate Underground Contamination -- Suuberg
Release Date: 10/01/2014
Scientists from the Brown University Superfund Research Program (Brown SRP) have taken a step toward providing a simpler, accurate screening method to determine whether chemicals in underground sources are seeping into buildings and contaminating indoor air. Led by Eric Suuberg, Sc.D., P.E., the researchers developed process models, basically numerical equations, to predict the concentrations of vapors that enter indoor environments. Published in a series of three papers, results from the process models were consistent with advanced computer modeling techniques.
- 236 - Developments toward Low-Cost, Unattended Vapor Intrusion Monitoring -- Patel
Release Date: 08/06/2014
NIEHS Superfund Research Program (SRP)-funded scientists from the chemical sensor company Seacoast Science are developing an inexpensive vapor intrusion monitoring system. The system can operate repeatedly without user intervention and detect typical vapor intrusion chemicals at low detection limits, allowing many more sites to be monitored over longer periods.
- 234 - Gold Nanoparticles Offer a Simple and Inexpensive Way to Detect Mercury -- Koshland
Release Date: 06/04/2014
Researchers led by Catherine Koshland, Ph.D., from the University of California, Berkeley Superfund Research Program (SRP) have developed an inexpensive, easy to use, and highly sensitive sensor to measure how much mercury is in liquid or aqueous samples. The sensor uses a film of gold nanoparticles to measure mercury concentrations down to 1.5 nanograms per liter.
- 232 - Understanding the Movement of Inhaled PCBs in the Body -- Thorne
Release Date: 04/02/2014
Researchers at the University of Iowa Superfund Research Program (Iowa SRP) have found that a form of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), known as PCB11, is completely absorbed and then rapidly eliminated from the body when inhaled. They also identified the PCB11 metabolites that would best serve as markers of exposure to the chemical in urine.
- 227 - Lead Discovered at Higher Levels Below the Soil Surface -- Thompson, Boekelheide
Release Date: 11/06/2013
Measuring lead soil contamination at the surface may miss higher concentrations just below the ground, according to a new study from the Brown University Superfund Research Program (SRP). Researchers analyzed hundreds of soil samples from residential properties around six water tower sites in southern Rhode Island and found that even when lead levels on the surface are low, concentrations can be greater at depths down to a foot.
- 226 - Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals and Their Lifetime in Ambient Fine Particulate Matter -- Dellinger, Gehling
Release Date: 10/21/2013
For the first time, an expansive study into the concentration and extended decay behaviors of environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) in ambient fine particulate matter revealed the ways in which EPFRs decompose in the environment. EPFRs can cause cell damage and induce an inflammatory response which can lead to a wide range of biological damage.
- 219 - Arsenic Uptake in Homegrown Vegetables from Mining-Affected Soils -- Maier, Ramirez-Andreotta
Release Date: 03/06/2013
Arsenic uptake from soil into some plants presents a potential health hazard that may affect home gardeners near contaminated sites. When combining results from a greenhouse and a home garden study, the amount of arsenic accumulated in the edible portion of the plant in certain vegetable families was associated with the arsenic soil concentration.
- 217 - Majority of Women Exposed to Multiple Pollutants -- Thompson
Release Date: 01/02/2013
According to a new analysis of thousands of U.S. women of child bearing age, most exceeded the median blood level for two or more environmental pollutants - lead, mercury, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) - that are known to harm brain development of fetuses and infants.
- 214 - Study First to Quantify TCE in Breast Milk -- Beamer
Release Date: 10/03/2012
Trichloroethylene (TCE), a degreasing agent, is one of the most common groundwater contaminants in the United States. A new study reveals TCE can be detected in the breast milk of women living in an area with TCE-contaminated water.
- 207 - Particulate matter pollution: A particular problem for the young? -- Kennedy
Release Date: 03/07/2012
Newborns and infants may be uniquely susceptible to harm from tiny particles in air pollution (particulate matter), a study shows. Researchers exposed 7-day-old rats to a level of PM similar to that found in Fresno, Calif., which resulted in biological changes not found in adults rats, including markers of cellular toxicity.
- 204 - CALUX Generation 3 - Enhanced Sensitivity for Low Volume/Low Concentration Samples -- Denison
Release Date: 12/07/2011
Firefly genes make the CALUX contaminant detection tool literally light up in the presence of dioxin and related chemicals. New advances make the tool 10- to 100 times more sensitive.
- 203 - Research Shows Arsenic Attaches to Sediments, Protects Human Health -- van Geen
Release Date: 11/02/2011
Scientists find arsenic can attach to sediments around deep wells, potentially reducing the risk of arsenic exposure for water users. The finding has implications for how arsenic-contaminated water sources are treated and managed.
- 202 - Size-resolved Chemical Characterization of Atmospheric Aerosols -- Betterton
Release Date: 10/05/2011
Some mining operations release dust containing hazardous elements like arsenic and lead into the air. Scientists have developed a new approach for detecting these airborne pollutants, assessing their potential health impacts and reducing human exposures.
- 192 - Discovery of the Key to Metal Accumulation in Plants -- Schroeder
Release Date: 12/01/2010
Plants that take up hazardous metals can help clean up polluted soils, but they also can become a route of human exposure when edible crops take up pollutants. Researchers are deciphering how plants take up metals in order to better control the process.
- 190 - Determining Susceptibility to Environmentally-induced Neurotoxicity -- Furlong
Release Date: 10/05/2010
Researchers use an innovative approach to track the health effects of organophosphate insecticides. The findings may also have implications for research on Parkinson's disease and studies on the health effects of nerve agents and aircraft engine fumes.
- 189 - Use of Spatial and Temporal Analyses to Provide Insights into the Environmental Etiology of Cancer -- Aschengrau, Webster
Release Date: 09/01/2010
Scientists are investigating what individuals in geographic "hot spots" for cancer have in common to reveal possible routes of exposure to environmental carcinogens.
- 187 - Chronic Arsenic Exposure Linked to Increased Mortality Rate -- Ahsan, Graziano
Release Date: 07/07/2010
A unique study involving nearly 12,000 participants offers strong evidence of an increased risk of death among those who drink water from sources with elevated arsenic levels.
- 184 - Linking Site Specific Contaminant Mixtures to Biological Responses -- Anderson
Release Date: 04/05/2010
New tools could help Superfund site managers evaluate the nuances of chemical mixtures and identify the most pressing threats to ecosystem and human health.
- 178 - Arsenic Just as Risky Ingested as Inhaled -- Smith
Release Date: 10/07/2009
- 174 - Gene-Environment Interactions: PCB Exposures and Adverse Effects on Pregnancy -- Sharma
Release Date: 06/03/2009
- 173 - Are There Links Between Selenium Intake and Bladder Cancer? -- Karagas
Release Date: 05/06/2009
- 172 - New Understandings of Benzene Metabolism and Implications for Risk Assessments -- Smith, Rappaport
Release Date: 04/01/2009
- 171 - An Integrated Approach to Assess Sediment Toxicity -- Donnelly
Release Date: 03/04/2009
- 170 - Biomarkers to Investigate the Toxicity and Carcinogenicity of PHAHs -- Swenberg
Release Date: 02/04/2009
- 169 - First Glimpse of the Human Fetal Proteome Signals Early Effects from in utero Toxic Exposures -- Halden
Release Date: 01/07/2009
- 167 - SBRP Researcher Finds Previously Unidentified PCB in Urban Airshed -- Hornbuckle
Release Date: 11/05/2008
- 166 - Understanding Dermal Exposure - a Critical Step in Exposure Assessment -- Nylander-French
Release Date: 10/01/2008
- 157 - SBRP Investigators Find Evidence Suggesting a New Type of Endocrine Disruptor -- Lasley, Chen
Release Date: 01/02/2008
- 150 - A New USEPA SW-846 Method 4435 for HAH Analysis -- Denison, Clark
Release Date: 06/06/2007
- 143 - Toxicological Assessment of Remediated Environmental Chemicals -- Trosko
Release Date: 11/01/2006
- 142 - Nanoparticle Immunoassays - Advances & Spin-offs -- Kennedy, Hammock
Release Date: 10/04/2006
- 140 - Bromodichloromethane and Pregnancy Loss -- Chen, Lasley
Release Date: 08/02/2006
- 137 - Impacts of in utero and Early Childhood Exposure to Arsenic in Drinking Water -- Smith
Release Date: 05/03/2006
- 132 - Understanding the Mechanisms of Naphthalene-Induced Cytotoxicity -- Buckpitt
Release Date: 12/07/2005
- 129 - Manganese Exposure via Drinking Water and Children's Intellectual Function -- Graziano
Release Date: 09/07/2005
- 121 - Impacts of Low-Level Benzene Exposure -- Smith, Rappaport
Release Date: 01/05/2005
- 120 - Arsenic Exposure via Drinking Water and Children's Intellectual Function -- Graziano
Release Date: 12/01/2004
- 117 - Analysis of PAHs in Air Samples Collected After the WTC Disaster and Estimation of Increase in Lifetime Cancer Risk -- Rappaport
Release Date: 09/01/2004
- 114 - Fish as Sentinels of Persistent Organic Pollutants -- Wirgin
Release Date: 06/02/2004
- 96 - DNA Adducts as Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect -- Swenberg
Release Date: 12/04/2002
- 88 - Investigating Tools to Improve Risk Assessment for PCB-Induced Immune Dysfunction -- Ganey
Release Date: 04/03/2002
- 87 - Application of Wildlife Biomarker Technologies in Remediation Decision-Making -- Hooper
Release Date: 03/06/2002
- 86 - Development of a Biomarker of Exposure to Benzene -- Rappaport
Release Date: 02/06/2002
- 67 - Optimization of the CALUX Bioassay for Use in Detecting Dioxin and Related Chemicals in Serum -- Denison
Release Date: 06/07/2000
- 60 - The Development of DNA Biomarkers for Ecological Risk Assessment -- Malins
Release Date: 12/01/1999
- 46 - Improving Health Risk Assessment Through Mechanistic Research -- Swenberg
Release Date: 05/19/1999
- 36 - Improving the Health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures -- Donnelly
Release Date: 12/23/1998
- 1 - Bioassay Developed for Detection of Dioxin-Like Chemicals -- Denison
Release Date: 08/07/1997