Superfund Research Program
Research Briefs By Category: Biomolecular Research
- 278 - Chronic Inflammation Suppresses Immune Cells that Fight Liver Cancer -- Karin
Release Date: 02/07/2018
Researchers at the University of California San Diego (UCSD) showed that chronic liver inflammation can promote cancer by suppressing one of the body’s natural mechanisms to fight cancer development. The study, funded in part by the Superfund Research Program (SRP), explains the success of some types of cancer immunotherapy and suggests novel targets for new therapies.
- 277 - Using Saliva to Understand Exposures and Monitor Health -- Rappaport
Release Date: 01/10/2018
Collecting saliva may be a practical alternative to blood for characterizing a person’s exposures, according to new research from the Superfund Research Program (SRP) Center at the University of California (UC), Berkeley. The researchers found that saliva contains a rich set of molecular information that can be used to construct individual exposure histories and discover risk factors for chronic diseases.
- 271 - New 3D Fish Liver Model for Aquatic Toxicology -- Kane
Release Date: 07/12/2017
Researchers at the Brown University Superfund Research Program (SRP) Center have developed a new 3D liver cell model that can be used to screen chemicals for toxicity in fish. The new model uses fish liver cells cultured to form 3D microtissue, so researchers can assess liver toxicants over time and after single and repeated exposures.
- 269 - Platform Allows Rapid Analysis of Antioxidant Genes in Zebrafish -- Gallagher
Release Date: 05/03/2017
A newly developed panel of zebrafish genes can be combined with a rapid testing platform to identify chemicals that induce oxidative stress, according to researchers at the University of Washington (UW) Superfund Research Program (SRP) Center. The method, optimized for use on larval zebrafish by UW SRP Center researchers, is cost-effective and can be performed more quickly and with less tissue than conventional methods.
- 268 - Prenatal Arsenic Exposure Alters Newborn Metabolite Profiles -- Fry
Release Date: 04/05/2017
Researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Superfund Research Program (UNC SRP) Center have identified metabolites in umbilical cord blood that are associated with exposure to arsenic in the womb. The findings also show that differences in a mother’s metabolism of arsenic may influence the metabolite profile of her baby. Assessing changes in the newborn’s metabolite profile by looking at the full range of metabolites, or metabolome, may provide insight into how prenatal arsenic exposure could affect important pathways responsible for maintaining normal cell processes in the body.
- 267 - Cell-Based Models Reveal Differences in How PAH Mixtures Affect Neurodevelopment -- Slotkin
Release Date: 03/01/2017
Exposure to a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may produce different neurodevelopmental effects from those of exposure to individual PAHs, and the developing brain may be sensitive to these contaminants over a wide window of development, according to a Duke University Superfund Research Program (SRP) Center study.
- 263 - A Link Between Exposure to PCBs, Diet, and Cardiovascular Disease -- Hennig
Release Date: 11/02/2016
Researchers at the University of Kentucky Superfund Research Program (UK SRP) Center have identified a new mechanism linking exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). They revealed that PCBs can lead to increased production of a biological marker of CVD, which is also linked to consumption of red meat and other animal products, revealing a novel diet-toxicant interaction associated with CVD risk.
- 262 - Environmental Exposures and AhR in Oral Cancer Development and Progression -- Sherr
Release Date: 10/05/2016
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) plays an important role in oral cancer, and environmental chemicals and bacteria that activate the AhR may worsen oral cancer development and progression, according to a recent study from the Boston University Superfund Research Program (SRP) Center.
- 258 - New Breakthrough in Understanding Gene Regulation -- Swenberg
Release Date: 06/01/2016
A team of researchers at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Superfund Research Program (UNC SRP) Center and Yale University developed a new method to study DNA modifications that led them to a paradigm-shifting discovery of a new mechanism of gene regulation in mouse cells. The new method and resulting discoveries are important breakthroughs that open new possibilities for understanding gene regulation in mice and humans, particularly during development.
- 256 - A New Dilution Tool to Facilitate High-Throughput Assay Techniques -- Pan
Release Date: 04/06/2016
A new tool provides a quick and easy way to dilute samples for biochemical and biological analyses. The microfluidic dilution generator, developed by researchers led by Tingrui Pan, Ph.D., at the University of California, Davis Superfund Research Program Center, can serve as a simple dilution device in research laboratories, point-of-care clinical settings, and low-resource environments.
- 254 - Low-Dose Organic Arsenic Exposure Negatively Affects the Immune System in the Lung -- Stanton
Release Date: 02/03/2016
Arsenic exposure may alter immune response to a common pathogen in the lung, according to a recent study from the Dartmouth College Superfund Research Program (SRP) Center. This study provides insight into how arsenic exposure may increase the risk of respiratory infection and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which is associated with chronic bacterial infections and other non-malignant lung infections. The study also helps discern the contribution of organic forms of arsenic alone to the alteration of the innate immune response in the lung.
- 253 - Mapping Protein Targets of Environmental Chemicals Using Chemoproteomic Platforms -- Nomura
Release Date: 01/06/2016
Using a platform to map the reactivity of environmental chemicals across the proteome may uncover new ways environmental chemicals interact in humans, according to a study from the University of California (UC) Berkeley Superfund Research Program (SRP) Center. Researchers use reactivity-based strategies that mine for distinct sets of proteins throughout the proteome that may be particularly sensitive to environmental chemicals.
- 250 - Intestinal Microbes Protect the Liver and Prevent Liver Fibrosis -- Brenner
Release Date: 10/07/2015
Bacteria and other microbes in the intestines prevent liver fibrosis, or scarring, upon chronic liver injury in mice, according to a new study from the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). The research, funded in part by the Superfund Research Program (SRP), is the first to show a beneficial role of intestinal microbiota in maintaining liver homeostasis and preventing liver fibrosis resulting from chronic damage to the liver.
- 249 - Newly Discovered Cells Regenerate Liver Tissue Without Forming Tumors -- Karin
Release Date: 09/02/2015
Researchers, through the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Superfund Research Program (SRP) Center, have discovered a population of liver cells that are better at regenerating liver tissue than ordinary liver cells, or hepatocytes. The study is the first to identify these so-called "hybrid hepatocytes" and show that they are able to regenerate liver tissue without giving rise to cancer. While most of the work described in the study was done in mouse models, the researchers also found similar cells in human livers.
- 237 - The Flame Retardant Firemaster 550, Fat Cells, and Bone Health -- Schlezinger
Release Date: 09/03/2014
Researchers from the Boston University (BU) and Duke University Superfund Research Program (SRP) Centers found that components of the flame-retardant mixture Firemaster® 550 (FM550) may stimulate growth of fat cells and reduce bone health. The results of the collaborative study suggest that triphenyl phosphate (TPP), a component of FM550 that is widespread in household products and house dust, interacts with a protein that regulates fat cell differentiation and lipid storage.
- 233 - Investigating the Newborn Proteome: Prenatal Arsenic Exposure and Altered Protein Expression -- Fry
Release Date: 05/07/2014
Scientists have identified changes in biological pathways that are associated with prenatal arsenic exposure. This research, led by Rebecca Fry, Ph.D., at the University of North Carolina Superfund Research Program (UNC SRP), is the largest protein-based study of an arsenic pregnancy cohort to date. The NIEHS-funded work provides mechanistic insights into the links between early life exposure to arsenic and disease susceptibility and also identifies proteins and pathways that may later be used to identify markers of arsenic exposure and disease risk in humans.
- 231 - Novel Pathway Involved in Neurodevelopmental Toxicity of PCBs -- Lein
Release Date: 03/05/2014
Non-dioxin-like (NDL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread environmental contaminants previously associated with neurological disorders in children. In a new study funded in part by the University of California Davis Superfund Research Program, UC Davis investigators working in collaboration with colleagues at Washington State University demonstrated a novel mechanism of PCB developmental neurotoxicity.
- 225 - Commercial Paper and Rubber Products Contain Activators of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor -- Denison, Di Giulio
Release Date: 09/04/2013
Common commercial and consumer products, including newspapers and rubber bands, contain chemicals that are recognized by the body as toxins, according to a collaborative study by researchers at the Duke University and University of California, Davis Superfund Research Program (SRP) Centers.
- 221 - Novel Method Identifies Potential Key Pathway in Arsenic-Induced Birth Defects -- Fry
Release Date: 05/01/2013
Blocking the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) pathway in a chick embryo model prevents structural birth defects induced by arsenic, according to a 2013 NIEHS-funded study at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Superfund Research Program (UNC SRP). The laboratory study was performed after computationally predicting the association between the GR pathway and metal-induced birth defects with a novel approach to identify targeted biological pathways.
- 220 - Commonly Manufactured Nanomaterial Induces Neurovascular Toxicity -- Toborek
Release Date: 04/03/2013
Nanoalumina, a widely manufactured nanomaterial, was shown to accumulate in brain cells, inducing nerve and blood vessel damage and protein degradation in the brain. Study results also suggest that exposure to nanoalumina disrupts the blood-brain barrier and may worsen the outcomes of neurological disorders such as stroke.
- 213 - Widely Used Antibacterial Agents May Lead to Significant Health Concerns -- Hammock, Pessah
Release Date: 09/05/2012
Researchers at UC Davis show that triclosan, a chemical widely used in antibacterial products, impairs heart and skeletal muscle activity in animal models. Other studies link another antibacterial agent, triclocarban, to changes in regulatory pathways in mice and in human cells.
- 208 - A Flurry of Arsenic Findings -- Jackson, Lu, Ahsan
Release Date: 04/04/2012
New evidence about arsenic abounds in SRP studies published recently. The studies reveal that food is an unexpected source of arsenic exposure, demonstrate adverse health effects are from low levels of exposure, show the mechanisms behind some of arsenic's health effects, and suggest a strategy for reducing exposure from well water.
- 201 - What a Difference a Methyl Group Makes -- Swenberg
Release Date: 09/07/2011
Some proteins can turn genes on or off, like a light switch, by adding or removing a methyl group. Scientists are uncovering how these switches are wired, offering new insights for research on stem cells and cancer.
- 175 - Do Mirror Differences Among Non-coplanar PCBs Influence Their Developmental Neurotoxicity? -- Lehmler, Pessah
Release Date: 07/01/2009
- 172 - New Understandings of Benzene Metabolism and Implications for Risk Assessments -- Smith, Rappaport
Release Date: 04/01/2009
- 169 - First Glimpse of the Human Fetal Proteome Signals Early Effects from in utero Toxic Exposures -- Halden
Release Date: 01/07/2009
- 162 - Toxicogenomics Studies Focus on Largemouth Bass -- Denslow
Release Date: 06/04/2008
- 155 - Assessing Bioremediation of Chloroethenes through Stable Carbon Isotope Fractionation -- Alvarez-Cohen
Release Date: 11/07/2007
- 145 - Arsenic Affects All Five Steroid Receptors -- Hamilton
Release Date: 01/03/2007
- 141 - MMA(III) - a Role in Arsenic Carcinogenesis -- Gandolfi
Release Date: 09/06/2006
- 132 - Understanding the Mechanisms of Naphthalene-Induced Cytotoxicity -- Buckpitt
Release Date: 12/07/2005
- 130 - Lead-Induced Oxidative Stress in Astroglia -- Ramos, Tiffany-Castiglioni
Release Date: 10/05/2005
- 126 - Clues to the Genotoxicity of Arsenic -- Hei
Release Date: 06/01/2005
- 124 - DNA Damage Index: A New Tool for Assessing Toxic Effects of Contaminants -- Malins, Stegeman
Release Date: 04/06/2005
- 122 - Factors Affecting the Impact of Exposures to Metals -- Costa, Rossman
Release Date: 02/02/2005
- 118 - Evidence of a Molecular Link Between Inflammation and Cancer -- Karin
Release Date: 10/06/2004
- 116 - Investigating the Impact of Organic Mixtures on Cardiac Development of the Killifish -- Di Giulio
Release Date: 08/04/2004
- 115 - Low Levels of Arsenite May Serve as a Treatment for Melanoma -- Hei
Release Date: 07/08/2004
- 112 - Using Computational Approaches to Investigate Ligand-Receptor Interactions -- Vajda
Release Date: 04/07/2004
- 105 - PON1 as a Biomarker of Susceptibility to Environmentally-Induced Diseases -- Costa
Release Date: 09/03/2003
- 95 - Multidisciplinary Studies of the Origins of Childhood Leukemia -- Smith, Buffler
Release Date: 11/06/2002
- 88 - Investigating Tools to Improve Risk Assessment for PCB-Induced Immune Dysfunction -- Ganey
Release Date: 04/03/2002
- 84 - Monitoring Xenoestrogen Exposure in Largemouth Bass -- Denslow
Release Date: 12/05/2001
- 80 - Mechanisms of Chlorpyrifos Developmental Neurotoxicity -- Slotkin
Release Date: 08/01/2001
- 78 - Role of Oxyradicals in Genotoxicity of Arsenic -- Hei
Release Date: 06/06/2001
- 58 - Mechanisms Underlying Arsenic-Induced Vascular Disease -- Barchowsky
Release Date: 11/11/1999
- 55 - Potent Inhibitors are Discovered for Soluble Epoxide Hydrolases, Enzymes That Have an Important Role in the Metabolism of Environmental Contaminants -- Hammock
Release Date: 09/22/1999
- 52 - The Effects of Nutrition on Polychlorinated Biphenyl-Mediated Endothelial Cell Activation - Implications in Atherosclerosis -- Hennig, Toborek, Robertson
Release Date: 08/11/1999
- 51 - Diversity of Inorganic Arsenic Metabolism -- Aposhian
Release Date: 07/28/1999
- 49 - Exploring the Mechanisms of Neurotoxicity Caused by Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls -- Carpenter
Release Date: 06/30/1999
- 48 - Mechanisms of Vanadium Toxicity in the Respiratory System -- Godleski
Release Date: 06/16/1999
- 44 - Studies Examine the Mechanisms of Chromium Mutagenesis -- Dixon
Release Date: 04/21/1999
- 39 - Tracking Down the Mechanisms of Trichloroethylene-Induced Toxicity -- Waxman
Release Date: 02/10/1999
- 38 - Genetic Susceptibility to Lead Toxicity -- Kelsey
Release Date: 01/27/1999
- 30 - Understanding the Molecular Basis for Metal-Induced Cancers -- Hamilton
Release Date: 09/30/1998
- 28 - The Alteration of Estrogen Metabolism By Polychlorinated Biphenyls -- Spink
Release Date: 09/02/1998
- 27 - Identification of Metal Responsive Genes in Aquatic Arthropods -- Beaty
Release Date: 08/19/1998
- 25 - Comparative Metabolism Studies of Dichloroacetate -- Stacpoole
Release Date: 07/22/1998
- 21 - Mechanisms of Dioxin Sensitivity and Acquired Resistance -- Hahn
Release Date: 05/27/1998
- 14 - Studies Examine Cardiac Teratogenicity of a Common Drinking Water Contaminant -- Johnson
Release Date: 02/18/1998
- 12 - Mutational Fingerprinting to Find Causes of Mutations in Humans -- Thilly
Release Date: 01/21/1998
- 10 - Structural Requirements for PCB-Induced Estrogenic Activity -- Gierthy
Release Date: 12/10/1997
- 8 - Possible Explanation for Disease Susceptibility to Benzene Exposure -- Smith
Release Date: 11/11/1997
- 3 - Low Levels of Arsenite Found to Decrease Hepatic Cytochrome P450 Activity -- Sinclair
Release Date: 09/03/1997