Health Effects - Animal Studies
Superfund Research Program
Research Briefs By Category: Health Effects - Animal Studies
- 272 - TBT Alters Bone Marrow Microenvironment and Suppresses Important Immune Cells -- Schlezinger
Release Date: 08/02/2017
Researchers at the Boston University Superfund Research Program (BU SRP) Center reported that tributyltin (TBT) may promote aging-related problems in immune health. The team, led by Jennifer Schlezinger, Ph.D., found that TBT impacts bone marrow B cells directly by triggering cell death and indirectly by changing the microenvironment of bone marrow vital for supporting immune health.
- 271 - New 3D Fish Liver Model for Aquatic Toxicology -- Kane
Release Date: 07/12/2017
Researchers at the Brown University Superfund Research Program (SRP) Center have developed a new 3D liver cell model that can be used to screen chemicals for toxicity in fish. The new model uses fish liver cells cultured to form 3D microtissue, so researchers can assess liver toxicants over time and after single and repeated exposures.
- 269 - Platform Allows Rapid Analysis of Antioxidant Genes in Zebrafish -- Gallagher
Release Date: 05/03/2017
A newly developed panel of zebrafish genes can be combined with a rapid testing platform to identify chemicals that induce oxidative stress, according to researchers at the University of Washington (UW) Superfund Research Program (SRP) Center. The method, optimized for use on larval zebrafish by UW SRP Center researchers, is cost-effective and can be performed more quickly and with less tissue than conventional methods.
- 265 - The Genetics Behind the Killifish’s Adaptation to Pollution -- Hahn
Release Date: 01/04/2017
Killifish living in four polluted East Coast estuaries have adapted quickly to survive high levels of toxic industrial pollutants. In a new study, researchers explored the complex genetics involved in the Atlantic killifish’s resilience, bringing us one step closer to understanding how they rapidly evolved to tolerate normally lethal levels of environmental contaminants. Exploring the evolutionary basis for these genetic changes may provide new information about the mechanisms of environmental chemical toxicity in both animals and humans.
- 263 - A Link Between Exposure to PCBs, Diet, and Cardiovascular Disease -- Hennig
Release Date: 11/02/2016
Researchers at the University of Kentucky Superfund Research Program (UK SRP) Center have identified a new mechanism linking exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). They revealed that PCBs can lead to increased production of a biological marker of CVD, which is also linked to consumption of red meat and other animal products, revealing a novel diet-toxicant interaction associated with CVD risk.
- 262 - Environmental Exposures and AhR in Oral Cancer Development and Progression -- Sherr
Release Date: 10/05/2016
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) plays an important role in oral cancer, and environmental chemicals and bacteria that activate the AhR may worsen oral cancer development and progression, according to a recent study from the Boston University Superfund Research Program (SRP) Center.
- 258 - New Breakthrough in Understanding Gene Regulation -- Swenberg
Release Date: 06/01/2016
A team of researchers at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Superfund Research Program (UNC SRP) Center and Yale University developed a new method to study DNA modifications that led them to a paradigm-shifting discovery of a new mechanism of gene regulation in mouse cells. The new method and resulting discoveries are important breakthroughs that open new possibilities for understanding gene regulation in mice and humans, particularly during development.
- 253 - Mapping Protein Targets of Environmental Chemicals Using Chemoproteomic Platforms -- Nomura
Release Date: 01/06/2016
Using a platform to map the reactivity of environmental chemicals across the proteome may uncover new ways environmental chemicals interact in humans, according to a study from the University of California (UC) Berkeley Superfund Research Program (SRP) Center. Researchers use reactivity-based strategies that mine for distinct sets of proteins throughout the proteome that may be particularly sensitive to environmental chemicals.
- 250 - Intestinal Microbes Protect the Liver and Prevent Liver Fibrosis -- Brenner
Release Date: 10/07/2015
Bacteria and other microbes in the intestines prevent liver fibrosis, or scarring, upon chronic liver injury in mice, according to a new study from the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). The research, funded in part by the Superfund Research Program (SRP), is the first to show a beneficial role of intestinal microbiota in maintaining liver homeostasis and preventing liver fibrosis resulting from chronic damage to the liver.
- 249 - Newly Discovered Cells Regenerate Liver Tissue Without Forming Tumors -- Karin
Release Date: 09/02/2015
Researchers, through the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Superfund Research Program (SRP) Center, have discovered a population of liver cells that are better at regenerating liver tissue than ordinary liver cells, or hepatocytes. The study is the first to identify these so-called "hybrid hepatocytes" and show that they are able to regenerate liver tissue without giving rise to cancer. While most of the work described in the study was done in mouse models, the researchers also found similar cells in human livers.
- 241 - SRP Researchers Determine that Triclosan Promotes Liver Tumor Growth in Mice -- Tukey, Hammock
Release Date: 01/07/2015
A collaborative study showed that long-term exposure to triclosan promotes the growth of liver tumors in laboratory mice, raising concerns about its safety for humans. Triclosan is a common antibacterial chemical used in a wide variety of consumer products such as cosmetics, soaps, detergents, and toothpaste.
- 240 - Linking Phthalate Exposure and Oxidative Stress in Pregnancy -- Meeker
Release Date: 12/03/2014
In a recent study from the University of Michigan School of Public Health, NIEHS Superfund Research Program (SRP), scientists reported that in pregnant women, exposure to phthalates, found in plastics and personal care products, was associated with increased levels of oxidative stress, which damages the body's proteins, lipids, and DNA. The findings may help scientists better understand the mechanisms involved in pregnancy complications, such as preterm birth, which are associated with exposure to phthalates.
- 232 - Understanding the Movement of Inhaled PCBs in the Body -- Thorne
Release Date: 04/02/2014
Researchers at the University of Iowa Superfund Research Program (Iowa SRP) have found that a form of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), known as PCB11, is completely absorbed and then rapidly eliminated from the body when inhaled. They also identified the PCB11 metabolites that would best serve as markers of exposure to the chemical in urine.
- 230 - Combined Exposure to Glucocorticoids and Chlorpyrifos Influences Neurobehavioral Development -- Levin, Slotkin
Release Date: 02/05/2014
Prenatal glucocorticoid treatment, used to speed up the development of a preterm infant's lungs, has the potential to worsen the outcome of later exposures to toxins, according to findings by the Duke University Superfund Research Program (SRP). The study in rats, led by Ed Levin, Ph.D., and Ted Slotkin, Ph.D., explored how exposure to glucocorticoids, a type of steroid, before birth changes the effect of the insecticide chlorpyrifos on behavioral development.
- 225 - Commercial Paper and Rubber Products Contain Activators of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor -- Denison, Di Giulio
Release Date: 09/04/2013
Common commercial and consumer products, including newspapers and rubber bands, contain chemicals that are recognized by the body as toxins, according to a collaborative study by researchers at the Duke University and University of California, Davis Superfund Research Program (SRP) Centers.
- 224 - Effects of Cadmium and Copper on the Fish Olfactory System -- Gallagher
Release Date: 08/07/2013
A series of studies from a research group led by University of Washington (UW) grantee Evan Gallagher, Ph.D., provide insight into the mechanisms underlying injury to the olfactory system of fish exposed to cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) including concentrations seen in the environment.
- 221 - Novel Method Identifies Potential Key Pathway in Arsenic-Induced Birth Defects -- Fry
Release Date: 05/01/2013
Blocking the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) pathway in a chick embryo model prevents structural birth defects induced by arsenic, according to a 2013 NIEHS-funded study at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Superfund Research Program (UNC SRP). The laboratory study was performed after computationally predicting the association between the GR pathway and metal-induced birth defects with a novel approach to identify targeted biological pathways.
- 220 - Commonly Manufactured Nanomaterial Induces Neurovascular Toxicity -- Toborek
Release Date: 04/03/2013
Nanoalumina, a widely manufactured nanomaterial, was shown to accumulate in brain cells, inducing nerve and blood vessel damage and protein degradation in the brain. Study results also suggest that exposure to nanoalumina disrupts the blood-brain barrier and may worsen the outcomes of neurological disorders such as stroke.
- 213 - Widely Used Antibacterial Agents May Lead to Significant Health Concerns -- Hammock, Pessah
Release Date: 09/05/2012
Researchers at UC Davis show that triclosan, a chemical widely used in antibacterial products, impairs heart and skeletal muscle activity in animal models. Other studies link another antibacterial agent, triclocarban, to changes in regulatory pathways in mice and in human cells.
- 210 - A New Role for MicroRNAs in Neurobehavioral Development -- Tal, Tanguay
Release Date: 06/06/2012
MicroRNAs may be tiny, but these short pieces of RNA regulate important human genes. The genes they regulate are also more sensitive to environmental chemical exposures. In a new study, researchers found environmental disruption of miRNAs can affect neurobehavioral development in zebrafish.
- 207 - Particulate matter pollution: A particular problem for the young? -- Kennedy
Release Date: 03/07/2012
Newborns and infants may be uniquely susceptible to harm from tiny particles in air pollution (particulate matter), a study shows. Researchers exposed 7-day-old rats to a level of PM similar to that found in Fresno, Calif., which resulted in biological changes not found in adults rats, including markers of cellular toxicity.
- 206 - Arsenic Linked to Developmental Changes in the Heart -- Camenisch
Release Date: 02/01/2012
Adults exposed to arsenic in their drinking water are at increased risk for high blood pressure and heart disease, among other health problems. New research using mice shows these cardiovascular effects can start early in life if mice are exposed to arsenic during development.
- 195 - Mechanism of Resistance to PCB Toxicity in Fish -- Wirgin, Hahn
Release Date: 03/02/2011
A team unravels the mystery of how Atlantic tomcod living in waters contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) not only survive in their polluted environment, but thrive.
- 188 - TCDD May Contribute to Immune System Instability -- Kaminski
Release Date: 08/04/2010 A new computational model shows how the environmental contaminant TCDD causes immune system mayhem by interfering with the activation of crucial B cells.
- 185 - Childhood Exposures to Pesticides May Contribute to Obesity and Diabetes in Adults -- Slotkin
Release Date: 05/05/2010
Organophosphates represent nearly 50 percent of worldwide insecticide use. Unfortunately, they may also contribute to another statistic: the increased incidence of obesity and diabetes.
- 184 - Linking Site Specific Contaminant Mixtures to Biological Responses -- Anderson
Release Date: 04/05/2010
New tools could help Superfund site managers evaluate the nuances of chemical mixtures and identify the most pressing threats to ecosystem and human health.
- 175 - Do Mirror Differences Among Non-coplanar PCBs Influence Their Developmental Neurotoxicity? -- Lehmler, Pessah
Release Date: 07/01/2009
- 174 - Gene-Environment Interactions: PCB Exposures and Adverse Effects on Pregnancy -- Sharma
Release Date: 06/03/2009
- 170 - Biomarkers to Investigate the Toxicity and Carcinogenicity of PHAHs -- Swenberg
Release Date: 02/04/2009
- 162 - Toxicogenomics Studies Focus on Largemouth Bass -- Denslow
Release Date: 06/04/2008
- 161 - PCB77 Promotes Obesity-associated Atherosclerosis -- Cassis
Release Date: 05/07/2008
- 159 - Research Brief 159: In utero and Early Postnatal Exposure to Arsenic May Alter Pulmonary Function -- Lantz
Release Date: 03/05/2008
- 157 - SBRP Investigators Find Evidence Suggesting a New Type of Endocrine Disruptor -- Lasley, Chen
Release Date: 01/02/2008
- 154 - Understanding the Underlying Mechanism of Asbestos Carcinogenesis -- Hei
Release Date: 10/03/2007
- 141 - MMA(III) - a Role in Arsenic Carcinogenesis -- Gandolfi
Release Date: 09/06/2006
- 124 - DNA Damage Index: A New Tool for Assessing Toxic Effects of Contaminants -- Malins, Stegeman
Release Date: 04/06/2005
- 122 - Factors Affecting the Impact of Exposures to Metals -- Costa, Rossman
Release Date: 02/02/2005
- 116 - Investigating the Impact of Organic Mixtures on Cardiac Development of the Killifish -- Di Giulio
Release Date: 08/04/2004
- 106 - The Effects of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons on Wildlife -- Gross, Sepulveda
Release Date: 10/01/2003
- 102 - Multidisciplinary Research to Develop Models to Study the Impacts of Exposure to Chlorpyrifos -- Levin, Linney
Release Date: 06/04/2003
- 94 - Anthrax invades and evades the immune system to cause widespread infection -- Karin
Release Date: 10/02/2002
- 92 - Biomarkers of Chromogenic Solvent Exposure & Neurodegeneration -- Sabri
Release Date: 08/07/2002
- 81 - Developmental Neurotoxicity of Xenoestrogens in Zebrafish -- Callard
Release Date: 09/05/2001
- 80 - Mechanisms of Chlorpyrifos Developmental Neurotoxicity -- Slotkin
Release Date: 08/01/2001
- 78 - Role of Oxyradicals in Genotoxicity of Arsenic -- Hei
Release Date: 06/06/2001
- 72 - An Investigation of the Behavioral Toxicity of Lead -- Strupp
Release Date: 12/06/2000
- 63 - Stage-specific Actions of Cadmium During Spermatogenesis -- Callard
Release Date: 02/02/2000
- 58 - Mechanisms Underlying Arsenic-Induced Vascular Disease -- Barchowsky
Release Date: 11/11/1999
- 55 - Potent Inhibitors are Discovered for Soluble Epoxide Hydrolases, Enzymes That Have an Important Role in the Metabolism of Environmental Contaminants -- Hammock
Release Date: 09/22/1999
- 52 - The Effects of Nutrition on Polychlorinated Biphenyl-Mediated Endothelial Cell Activation - Implications in Atherosclerosis -- Hennig, Toborek, Robertson
Release Date: 08/11/1999
- 51 - Diversity of Inorganic Arsenic Metabolism -- Aposhian
Release Date: 07/28/1999
- 49 - Exploring the Mechanisms of Neurotoxicity Caused by Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls -- Carpenter
Release Date: 06/30/1999
- 48 - Mechanisms of Vanadium Toxicity in the Respiratory System -- Godleski
Release Date: 06/16/1999
- 44 - Studies Examine the Mechanisms of Chromium Mutagenesis -- Dixon
Release Date: 04/21/1999
- 42 - Mechanisms and Consequences of Neutrophil Activation by Polychlorinated Biphenyls -- Ganey
Release Date: 03/24/1999
- 40 - The Effects of Organophosphate Compounds on the Developing Eye -- Hinton
Release Date: 02/24/1999
- 39 - Tracking Down the Mechanisms of Trichloroethylene-Induced Toxicity -- Waxman
Release Date: 02/10/1999
- 30 - Understanding the Molecular Basis for Metal-Induced Cancers -- Hamilton
Release Date: 09/30/1998
- 25 - Comparative Metabolism Studies of Dichloroacetate -- Stacpoole
Release Date: 07/22/1998
- 14 - Studies Examine Cardiac Teratogenicity of a Common Drinking Water Contaminant -- Johnson
Release Date: 02/18/1998
- 3 - Low Levels of Arsenite Found to Decrease Hepatic Cytochrome P450 Activity -- Sinclair
Release Date: 09/03/1997