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Research Briefs By Category: Analytical Research

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Superfund Research Program

  • 350 - New Model Estimates the Effects of Dioxin on Liver Cholesterol -- Zhang
    Release Date: 02/07/2024

    Scientists funded partly by the NIEHS Superfund Research Program (SRP) developed a computer model to determine the health effects of exposure to dioxins. Researchers use the model to combine data on exposures and on known health outcomes to assess the overall risk chemicals could pose to health. For this study, researchers at the Michigan State University SRP Center and Emory University created a computational model to show how the highly toxic chemical 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) affects biological processes that increase cholesterol levels in the liver.

  • 346 - Mechanism of Cadmium-induced Neurotoxicity, Potential Treatment Revealed -- Lu
    Release Date: 10/04/2023

    A particular class of extracellular vesicles protects against neurotoxicity caused by cadmium exposure, according to an NIEHS Superfund Research Program (SRP)-funded study. Extracellular vesicles are small packages of fats, nucleic acids, or proteins that allow cells to communicate with each other and support numerous cellular functions.

  • 342 - Exposure to PCBs During Nursing Leads to Temporary Diabetes-Related Health Effect -- Pearson
    Release Date: 06/07/2023

    Exposure to synthetic chemicals called polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) through a mother's milk could cause short-term glucose intolerance in offspring, according to a study by researchers from the University of Kentucky (UK) and funded by the NIEHS Superfund Research Program (SRP). Intolerance to glucose, signified by high blood levels of the sugar, is a hallmark of diabetes. The study, conducted with mice, builds on earlier SRP-funded work by the same group that found connections between maternal PCB exposure and diabetes risk factors in progeny.

  • 340 - Mimicking Molecules Made by Bacteria to Remove Metals From Water -- Maier
    Release Date: 04/05/2023

    NIEHS Superfund Research Program (SRP)-funded scientists developed a method to extract metals from water using synthetic molecules inspired by those produced by bacteria. The biodegradable molecules, called rhamnolipids, could one day be used to remove toxic metals or extract rare and valuable elements from aqueous mining and industrial waste.

  • 338 - Combining Analytical Chemistry and Machine Learning to Detangle Mixtures -- Halas
    Release Date: 02/01/2023

    NIEHS Superfund Research Program (SRP)-funded researchers demonstrated a significant step toward identifying individual chemical components in complex mixtures. Their approach uses advanced analytical techniques and sophisticated machine learning approaches while overcoming the time-consuming separation steps that preceded traditional chemical analysis.

  • 336 - Sampling Device Harnesses Powerful Molecular Interactions, Overcomes Barriers in Detecting Volatile Contaminants -- Nantz
    Release Date: 12/07/2022

    A NIEHS Superfund Research Program (SRP)-funded study showed how unique microsensors that harness powerful molecular interactions can selectively detect trace amounts of aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the environment.

  • 335 - PFAS Exposure Associated with Elevated Cholesterol in North Carolina Community -- Hoppin
    Release Date: 11/02/2022

    NIEHS Superfund Research Program (SRP)-funded researchers found that elevated levels of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in the blood of participants of the GenX Exposure Study were associated with higher cholesterol. Led by Jane Hoppin, ScD., of the North Carolina State University SRP Center, the study started in 2017 in response to the concerns of residents of Wilmington, North Carolina, about PFAS in their drinking water.

  • 323 - New Passive Sampling Device for PFAS -- Lohmann, Hurt
    Release Date: 11/03/2021

    Researchers from the NIEHS Superfund Research Program (SRP)-funded centers at the University of Rhode Island (URI) and Brown University developed a new type of passive sampling device for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Their new tool overcomes many limitations to traditional approaches, such as detecting short-chain PFAS and low concentrations of the chemicals in water.

  • 321 - First-of-its-Kind Arsenic Meta-Analysis Paves the Way for Future Data Integration -- Cardenas, Gamble
    Release Date: 09/01/2021

    Researchers from NIEHS Superfund Research Program (SRP) centers at the University of California (UC), Berkeley and Columbia University used advanced analysis techniques to combine data from populations in Chile and Bangladesh. The purpose was to detect common DNA methylation (DNAm) signatures associated with arsenic exposure.

  • 319 - Analyzing Chemicals and Genes Yields Novel Insight into PAH Behavior -- Simonich
    Release Date: 07/07/2021

    A new NIEHS Superfund Research Program (SRP)-funded study revealed how polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) breakdown and transform in the presence of ultraviolet A (UVA) light and titanium dioxide nanoparticle pollutants. Their findings have important implications for PAH cleanup, which may not consider how PAHs transform in diverse environments.

  • 317 - New Technique Sheds Light on PFAS in Coastal Watersheds -- Sunderland
    Release Date: 05/05/2021

    A new analytical workflow, developed by NIEHS Superfund Research Program (SRP) grantees, can identify and characterize previously undetected per- and polyfluoroalkyl (PFAS) compounds in contaminated watersheds. The team is led by Elsie Sunderland, Ph.D., of the University of Rhode Island SRP Center, and SRP trainee Bridger Ruyle, a doctoral student at Harvard.

  • 313 - New Model to Examine PFAS Sheds Light on Lipid Disruption Mechanisms -- Schlezinger, Webster
    Release Date: 01/13/2021

    Researchers from the Boston University (BU) Superfund Research Program (SRP) Center developed a novel study design that generated new insight on the effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on cholesterol regulation in the liver. Led by Jennifer Schlezinger, Ph.D., the team also investigated the molecular mechanisms of action, focusing on effects of PFOA on the human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (hPPARα), a transcription factor that regulates lipid homeostasis.

  • 312 - Improved Sequencing Method Leads to Advancements in Toxicology Research -- Zacharewski
    Release Date: 12/02/2020

    NIEHS-funded Superfund Research Program (SRP) scientists are employing a new RNA sequencing method to assess mechanisms of toxicity on a finer and more accessible scale. Researchers in SRP grantee Tim Zacharewski's Lab at the Michigan State University (MSU) SRP Center conducted the study.

  • 310 - New Tool Monitors a Flame Retardant in Sediment -- Hammock
    Release Date: 10/07/2020

    Researchers at the University of California, Davis (UC Davis) Superfund Research Program (SRP) Center developed a new, inexpensive tool to reliably detect small amounts of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in environmental samples. TBBPA is a flame retardant commonly found in household dust, soil, water, sewage, sludge, and sediments.

  • 309 - Treating Water with Chemical Oxidation May Produce Harmful By-Products -- Sedlak
    Release Date: 09/02/2020

    Chemical oxidation is a process commonly used to treat water contaminated with aromatic compounds like benzene. But, unexpected and potentially harmful breakdown products may result from this treatment process, according to a recent study from the NIEHS-funded University of California, Berkeley Superfund Research Program Center.

  • 307 - Clay Layers May Worsen Arsenic Contamination -- van Geen
    Release Date: 07/08/2020

    Layers of clay are widely thought to protect groundwater aquifers from above-ground contaminants. But according to a new NIEHS Superfund Research Program (SRP) study, these clay layers may play a role in increasing groundwater arsenic contamination.

  • 300 - Nanotube Sensor Detects Nitrosamines in Air -- Swager
    Release Date: 12/04/2019

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology Superfund Research Program researchers have developed a sensitive and inexpensive carbon nanotube-based sensor that can measure N-nitrosamines in air.

  • 295 - Model Predicts PAH Levels in Important Tribal Food Source -- Anderson
    Release Date: 07/10/2019

    A sediment passive sampling model can be used to accurately predict the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in butter clams, according to a recent Superfund Research Program (SRP) study. Led by Kim Anderson, Ph.D., of the Oregon State University (OSU) SRP Center, the research team worked closely with tribal leaders to better predict PAH levels in butter clams while having a minimal impact on this important resource.

  • 291 - Passive Samplers Tackle PCB Flux -- Hornbuckle
    Release Date: 03/06/2019

    Researchers from the University of Iowa Superfund Research Program (SRP) Center have developed a method to measure the movement, or flux, of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from water to air using passive sampling devices.

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